Production and Structural Diversification of Withanolides by Aeroponic Cultivation of Plants of Solanaceae: Cytotoxic and Other Withanolides from Aeroponically Grown Physalis coztomatl

Ya Ming Xu, E. M. Kithsiri Wijeratne, Manping X. Liu, Lijiang Xuan, Wenqiong Wang, A. A. Leslie Gunatilaka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Withanolides constitute one of the most interesting classes of natural products due to their diversity of structures and biological activities. Our recent studies on withanolides obtained from plants of Solanaceae including Withania somnifera and a number of Physalis species grown under environmentally controlled aeroponic conditions suggested that this technique is a convenient, reproducible, and superior method for their production and structural diversification. Investigation of aeroponically grown Physalis coztomatl afforded 29 withanolides compared to a total of 13 obtained previously from the wild-crafted plant and included 12 new withanolides, physacoztolides I−M (9–13), 15α-acetoxy-28-hydroxyphysachenolide C (14), 28-oxophysachenolide C (15), and 28-hydroxyphysachenolide C (16), 5α-chloro-6β-hydroxy-5,6-dihydrophysachenolide D (17), 15α-acetoxy-5α-chloro-6β-hydroxy-5,6-dihydrophysachenolide D (18), 28-hydroxy-5α-chloro-6β-hydroxy-5,6-dihydrophysachenolide D (19), physachenolide A-5-methyl ether (20), and 17 known withanolides 3–5, 8, and 21–33. The structures of 9–20 were elucidated by the analysis of their spectroscopic data and the known withanolides 3–5, 8, and 21–33 were identified by comparison of their spectroscopic data with those reported. Evaluation against a panel of prostate cancer (LNCaP, VCaP, DU-145, and PC-3) and renal carcinoma (ACHN) cell lines, and normal human foreskin fibroblast (WI-38) cells revealed that 8, 13, 15, and 17–19 had potent and selective activity for prostate cancer cell lines. Facile conversion of the 5,6-chlorohydrin 17 to its 5,6-epoxide 8 in cell culture medium used for the bioassay suggested that the cytotoxic activities observed for 17–19 may be due to in situ formation of their corresponding 5β,6β-epoxides, 8, 27, and 28.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number909
JournalMolecules
Volume27
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2022
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Aeroponic cultivation
  • Anticancer activity
  • Physalis coztomatl
  • Plants of Solanaceae
  • Prostate cancer
  • Withanolides

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry

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