Prolonged administration of doxycycline in patients with small asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysms: Report of a prospective (Phase II) multicenter study

B. Timothy Baxter, William H. Pearce, Eugene A. Waltke, Fred N. Littooy, John W. Hallett, K. Craig Kent, Gilbert R. Upchurch, Elliot L. Chaikof, Joseph L. Mills, Beverly Fleckten, G. Matt Longo, Jason K. Lee, Robert W. Thompson

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261 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate compliance, side effects, and safety associated with prolonged administration of doxycycline in patients with small asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). A secondary goal was to determine how treatment with doxycycline influences circulating levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in this patient population. Methods: Thirty-six patients with AAAs (30 men and 6 women; mean age, 69 ± 1 years) were enrolled into a 6-month phase II study to evaluate treatment with doxycycline (100 mg orally twice a day). Aneurysm size was measured before and after treatment, and compliance and side effects were monitored. Plasma levels of doxycycline were measured midway through the study, and plasma MMP-9 concentrations were measured at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Results: Thirty-three of the 36 patients (92%) completed 6 months of doxycycline treatment. Significant treatment-related side effects occurred in five patients (13.9%), including three with cutaneous photosensitivity reactions (8.3%), one with tooth discoloration (2.8%), and one with yeast infection (2.8%). A high rate of compliance with treatment was seen, despite minor but frequent side effects, including nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms (25%), easily managed episodes of photosensitivity (22.2%), and reversible tooth discoloration (5.5%). The mean plasma doxycycline level after 3 months was 4.62 ± 0.68 ug/mL (median, 3.64 μg/mL; range, 1.31 to 14.39 μg/mL; n = 23 patients). No significant change was seen in AAA diameter (42.7 ± 1.3 mm at 6 months versus 41.0 ± 0.9 mm at baseline), and the overall rate of AAA expansion was 0.63% ± 0.25% per month. The mean plasma MMP-9 level (n = 19 patients) was elevated at baseline (118.9 ± 37.9 ng/mL; upper limit of normal, 85 ng/mL) but subsequently decreased to 83.8 ± 32.9 ng/mL at 3 months (not signifcant versus baseline) and to 66.4 ± 24.2 ng/mL at 6 months (P = .022 versus baseline). Only 21% of patients had an elevated level of plasma MMP-9 after 6 months of treatment compared with 47% at baseline (P < .05). Conclusion: Prolonged administration of doxycycline is safe and well tolerated by patients with small asymptomatic AAAs and is associated with a gradual reduction in plasma MMP-9 levels. Further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effects of doxycycline on the rate and extent of aneurysm growth and the potential use of plasma MMP-9 levels as a biomarker of aneurysm disease progression.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of vascular surgery
Volume36
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2002

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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    Baxter, B. T., Pearce, W. H., Waltke, E. A., Littooy, F. N., Hallett, J. W., Kent, K. C., Upchurch, G. R., Chaikof, E. L., Mills, J. L., Fleckten, B., Longo, G. M., Lee, J. K., & Thompson, R. W. (2002). Prolonged administration of doxycycline in patients with small asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysms: Report of a prospective (Phase II) multicenter study. Journal of vascular surgery, 36(1), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1067/mva.2002.125018