Propagation in and scattering from a matched metamaterial having a zero index of refraction

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Abstract

Planar metamaterials that exhibit a zero index of refraction have been realized experimentally by several research groups. Their existence stimulated the present investigation, which details the properties of a passive, dispersive metamaterial that is matched to free space and has an index of refraction equal to zero. Thus, unlike previous zero-index investigations, both the permittivity and permeability are zero here at a specified frequency. One-, two-, and three-dimensional source problems are treated analytically. The one- and two-dimensional source problem results are confirmed numerically with finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations. The FDTD simulator is also used to treat the corresponding one- and two-dimensional scattering problems. It is shown that in both the source and scattering configurations the electromagnetic fields in a matched zero-index medium take on a static character in space, yet remain dynamic in time, in such a manner that the underlying physics remains associated with propagating fields. Zero phase variation at various points in the zero-index medium is demonstrated once steady-state conditions are obtained. These behaviors are used to illustrate why a zero-index metamaterial, such as a zero-index electromagnetic band-gap structured medium, significantly narrows the far-field pattern associated with an antenna located within it. They are also used to show how a matched zero-index slab could be used to transform curved wave fronts into planar ones.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Number of pages1
JournalPhysical Review E - Statistical Physics, Plasmas, Fluids, and Related Interdisciplinary Topics
Volume70
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2004

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Metamaterials
Refraction
refraction
Scattering
Propagation
propagation
Zero
scattering
Finite-difference Time-domain (FDTD)
Far-field Pattern
wave fronts
simulators
far fields
Permittivity
Scattering Problems
Band Gap
Free Space
permeability
electromagnetic fields
slabs

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
  • Statistics and Probability
  • Condensed Matter Physics

Cite this

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abstract = "Planar metamaterials that exhibit a zero index of refraction have been realized experimentally by several research groups. Their existence stimulated the present investigation, which details the properties of a passive, dispersive metamaterial that is matched to free space and has an index of refraction equal to zero. Thus, unlike previous zero-index investigations, both the permittivity and permeability are zero here at a specified frequency. One-, two-, and three-dimensional source problems are treated analytically. The one- and two-dimensional source problem results are confirmed numerically with finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations. The FDTD simulator is also used to treat the corresponding one- and two-dimensional scattering problems. It is shown that in both the source and scattering configurations the electromagnetic fields in a matched zero-index medium take on a static character in space, yet remain dynamic in time, in such a manner that the underlying physics remains associated with propagating fields. Zero phase variation at various points in the zero-index medium is demonstrated once steady-state conditions are obtained. These behaviors are used to illustrate why a zero-index metamaterial, such as a zero-index electromagnetic band-gap structured medium, significantly narrows the far-field pattern associated with an antenna located within it. They are also used to show how a matched zero-index slab could be used to transform curved wave fronts into planar ones.",
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