Appropriate physical description of multilayer structures to be used as soft x-ray optical elements is necessary to ensure agreement of predicted and actual performance. Deviations of the fabricated structures from an ideal design (interfacial roughness and diffusion, microvoids, impurities, thickness errors) degrade the reflectance properties. In addition, deviations of the physical properties of very thin films from those of the bulk materials can limit the validity of reflectance calculations. We describe these difficulties and how a particular fabrication-characterization procedure can help solve them. Characterization techniques used include a variety of x-ray diffraction techniques, Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy. Examples of results obtained for samples prepared by triode magnetically confined dc sputtering will be given, as will a discussion of the implication of these results for other multilayer materials.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Materials Science(all)
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering