Prospective longitudinal evaluation of men with initial prostate specific antigen levels of 4.0 ng./ml. or less

Clifford H. Harris, Bruce L. Dalkin, Elleen Martin, Phyllis C. Marx, Frederick R. Ahmann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

18 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose: We evaluated the 3-year longitudinal changes in serial serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels in men with an initial PSA of 4.0 ng./ml. or less and no suspicion of prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: A total of 760 men with an initial PSA of 4.0 ng./ml. or less plus a normal or suspicious digital rectal examination and a benign prostate biopsy was enrolled into an every 4-month PSA monitoring study. Results: Of the 559 men with an initial PSA of 2.0 ng./ml. or less only 3 (0.5%) had a persistently abnormal PSA for 3 years and 1 cancer (0.2%) was detected, and 48 men had a PSA velocity of 0.8 ng./ml. per year or more at year 1 but only 1 (2%) had a persistent rate of increase (2.4 ng./ml. per year) at 3 years. Of the 201 men with a PSA of 2.1 to 4.0 ng./ml. 85 had an abnormal PSA but only 37 (43%) met the criteria for biopsy. Only 8 of 23 biopsies (35%) revealed cancer. Of the 201 men 24 had a PSA velocity of 0.8 ng./ml. per year or more at year 1 but only 4 had persistence for 3 years. All 4 men had cancer but they were identified as at high risk by PSA criteria. Conclusions: Men with a PSA of 2.0 ng./ml. or less are at low risk for an abnormal PSA or cancer within 3 years and annual monitoring may not be necessary. However, annual monitoring is clinically useful in men with an initial PSA of 2.1 to 4.0 ng./ml. Also, serial monitoring with interval testing in men whose PSA becomes greater than 4.0 ng./ml. is beneficial in identifying a high risk group requiring biopsy. Finally, PSA velocity did not add further to cancer detection in this population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1740-1743
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Urology
Volume157
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1997

Keywords

  • prostate
  • prostate-specific antigen
  • prostatic neoplasms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

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