Background: Lung ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury leads to significant morbidity and mortality which remains a major obstacle after lung transplantation. However, the role of various subset(s) of lung cell populations in the pathogenesis of lung IR injury and the mechanisms of cellular protection remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the effects of adenosine A2A receptor (A2AAR) activation on resident lung cells after IR injury using an isolated, buffer-perfused murine lung model. Methods: To assess the protective effects of A2AAR activation, three groups of C57BL/6J mice were studied: a sham group (perfused for 2 hr with no ischemia), an IR group (1 hr ischemia + 1 hr reperfusion) and an IR+ATL313 group where ATL313, a specific A2AAR agonist, was included in the reperfusion buffer after ischemia. Lung injury parameters and pulmonary function studies were also performed after IR injury in A2AAR knockout mice, with or without ATL313 pretreatment. Lung function was assessed using a buffer-perfused isolated lung system. Lung injury was measured by assessing lung edema, vascular permeability, cytokine/chemokine activation and myeloperoxidase levels in the bronchoalveolar fluid.Results: After IR, lungs from C57BL/6J wild-type mice displayed significant dysfunction (increased airway resistance, pulmonary artery pressure and decreased pulmonary compliance) and significant injury (increased vascular permeability and edema). Lung injury and dysfunction after IR were significantly attenuated by ATL313 treatment. Significant induction of TNF-α, KC (CXCL1), MIP-2 (CXCL2) and RANTES (CCL5) occurred after IR which was also attenuated by ATL313 treatment. Lungs from A2AAR knockout mice also displayed significant dysfunction, injury and cytokine/chemokine production after IR, but ATL313 had no effect in these mice.Conclusion: Specific activation of A2AARs provides potent protection against lung IR injury via attenuation of inflammation. This protection occurs in the absence of circulating blood thereby indicating a protective role of A2AAR activation on resident lung cells such as alveolar macrophages. Specific A2AAR activation may be a promising therapeutic target for the prevention or treatment of pulmonary graft dysfunction in transplant patients.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine