Purpose: To determine the hemodynamic effects of intra-arterial nitroglycerin on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using 2-dimensional (2D) perfusion angiography. Materials and Methods: Two-dimensional perfusion angiograms obtained prior to radioembolization from September 2019 to February 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. The inclusion criteria were the presence of Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System-5 tumors and angiographically distinguishable tumor and background liver. The exclusion criteria were previously treated tumors and motion-degraded studies. Thirteen patients with 2D perfusion angiograms obtained before and 2 minutes ± 1 after the administration of intra-arterial nitroglycerin were analyzed. The mean patient age was 72 years ± 9 and 11 of 13 (85%) had cirrhosis. The mean maximum tumor dimension was 4.6 cm ± 2.1. Eight tumors were in the right lobe and 5 were in the left lobe. The tumor and background liver 2D perfusion data were processed and the areas under the time-density curves were calculated. The relative perfusion of HCC to background liver was compared before and after nitroglycerin administration using a 2-tailed paired t-test. Results: The mean rate of contrast administration was 1.4 mL/s ± 0.7 and the mean volume administered was 7.1 mL ± 3.3. The mean nitroglycerin dose was 281 μg ± 69. Ten of 13 patients (77%) demonstrated a relative increase in tumor perfusion. The mean HCC to background liver area under the curve ratio was 1.94 ± 0.76 before and 2.40 ± 0.89 after nitroglycerin administration (P < .05). Conclusions: Intra-arterial nitroglycerin increases previously untreated HCC perfusion relative to background liver as measured by 2D perfusion angiography, but this effect is variable among patients and should be validated with 3-dimensional imaging techniques.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine