Quantitative evidence for increasing forest fire severity in the Sierra Nevada and southern Cascade Mountains, California and Nevada, USA

J. D. Miller, H. D. Safford, Michael Crimmins, A. E. Thode

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

411 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Recent research has concluded that forest wildfires in the western United States are becoming larger and more frequent. A more significant question may be whether the ecosystem impacts of wildfire are also increasing. We show that a large area (approximately 120000 km2) of California and western Nevada experienced a notable increase in the extent of forest stand-replacing ("high severity") fire between 1984 and 2006. High severity forest fire is closely linked to forest fragmentation, wildlife habitat availability, erosion rates and sedimentation, post-fire seedling recruitment, carbon sequestration, and various other ecosystem properties and processes. Mean and maximum fire size, and the area burned annually have also all risen substantially since the beginning of the 1980s, and are now at or above values from the decades preceding the 1940s, when fire suppression became national policy. These trends are occurring in concert with a regional rise in temperature and a long-term increase in annual precipitation. A close examination of the climate-fire relationship and other evidence suggests that forest fuels are no longer limiting fire occurrence and behavior across much of the study region. We conclude that current trends in forest fire severity necessitate a re-examination of the implications of all-out fire suppression and its ecological impacts.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)16-32
Number of pages17
JournalEcosystems
Volume12
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2009

Fingerprint

Cascade Mountain region
fire severity
forest fires
forest fire
Fires
fire suppression
mountain
wildfires
fuels (fire ecology)
wildlife habitats
ecosystems
wildfire
Western United States
carbon sequestration
forest stands
habitat fragmentation
Ecosystems
habitat availability
climate
ecosystem

Keywords

  • Burn severity
  • California
  • Fire ecology
  • Fire severity
  • Relative differenced Normalized Burn Ratio
  • Sierra Nevada
  • Sierra Nevada Forest Plan Amendment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Ecology
  • Environmental Chemistry

Cite this

Quantitative evidence for increasing forest fire severity in the Sierra Nevada and southern Cascade Mountains, California and Nevada, USA. / Miller, J. D.; Safford, H. D.; Crimmins, Michael; Thode, A. E.

In: Ecosystems, Vol. 12, No. 1, 02.2009, p. 16-32.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{1b7f15a080b84530a66561e2d35bce74,
title = "Quantitative evidence for increasing forest fire severity in the Sierra Nevada and southern Cascade Mountains, California and Nevada, USA",
abstract = "Recent research has concluded that forest wildfires in the western United States are becoming larger and more frequent. A more significant question may be whether the ecosystem impacts of wildfire are also increasing. We show that a large area (approximately 120000 km2) of California and western Nevada experienced a notable increase in the extent of forest stand-replacing ({"}high severity{"}) fire between 1984 and 2006. High severity forest fire is closely linked to forest fragmentation, wildlife habitat availability, erosion rates and sedimentation, post-fire seedling recruitment, carbon sequestration, and various other ecosystem properties and processes. Mean and maximum fire size, and the area burned annually have also all risen substantially since the beginning of the 1980s, and are now at or above values from the decades preceding the 1940s, when fire suppression became national policy. These trends are occurring in concert with a regional rise in temperature and a long-term increase in annual precipitation. A close examination of the climate-fire relationship and other evidence suggests that forest fuels are no longer limiting fire occurrence and behavior across much of the study region. We conclude that current trends in forest fire severity necessitate a re-examination of the implications of all-out fire suppression and its ecological impacts.",
keywords = "Burn severity, California, Fire ecology, Fire severity, Relative differenced Normalized Burn Ratio, Sierra Nevada, Sierra Nevada Forest Plan Amendment",
author = "Miller, {J. D.} and Safford, {H. D.} and Michael Crimmins and Thode, {A. E.}",
year = "2009",
month = "2",
doi = "10.1007/s10021-008-9201-9",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "12",
pages = "16--32",
journal = "Ecosystems",
issn = "1432-9840",
publisher = "Springer New York",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Quantitative evidence for increasing forest fire severity in the Sierra Nevada and southern Cascade Mountains, California and Nevada, USA

AU - Miller, J. D.

AU - Safford, H. D.

AU - Crimmins, Michael

AU - Thode, A. E.

PY - 2009/2

Y1 - 2009/2

N2 - Recent research has concluded that forest wildfires in the western United States are becoming larger and more frequent. A more significant question may be whether the ecosystem impacts of wildfire are also increasing. We show that a large area (approximately 120000 km2) of California and western Nevada experienced a notable increase in the extent of forest stand-replacing ("high severity") fire between 1984 and 2006. High severity forest fire is closely linked to forest fragmentation, wildlife habitat availability, erosion rates and sedimentation, post-fire seedling recruitment, carbon sequestration, and various other ecosystem properties and processes. Mean and maximum fire size, and the area burned annually have also all risen substantially since the beginning of the 1980s, and are now at or above values from the decades preceding the 1940s, when fire suppression became national policy. These trends are occurring in concert with a regional rise in temperature and a long-term increase in annual precipitation. A close examination of the climate-fire relationship and other evidence suggests that forest fuels are no longer limiting fire occurrence and behavior across much of the study region. We conclude that current trends in forest fire severity necessitate a re-examination of the implications of all-out fire suppression and its ecological impacts.

AB - Recent research has concluded that forest wildfires in the western United States are becoming larger and more frequent. A more significant question may be whether the ecosystem impacts of wildfire are also increasing. We show that a large area (approximately 120000 km2) of California and western Nevada experienced a notable increase in the extent of forest stand-replacing ("high severity") fire between 1984 and 2006. High severity forest fire is closely linked to forest fragmentation, wildlife habitat availability, erosion rates and sedimentation, post-fire seedling recruitment, carbon sequestration, and various other ecosystem properties and processes. Mean and maximum fire size, and the area burned annually have also all risen substantially since the beginning of the 1980s, and are now at or above values from the decades preceding the 1940s, when fire suppression became national policy. These trends are occurring in concert with a regional rise in temperature and a long-term increase in annual precipitation. A close examination of the climate-fire relationship and other evidence suggests that forest fuels are no longer limiting fire occurrence and behavior across much of the study region. We conclude that current trends in forest fire severity necessitate a re-examination of the implications of all-out fire suppression and its ecological impacts.

KW - Burn severity

KW - California

KW - Fire ecology

KW - Fire severity

KW - Relative differenced Normalized Burn Ratio

KW - Sierra Nevada

KW - Sierra Nevada Forest Plan Amendment

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=58849125704&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=58849125704&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/s10021-008-9201-9

DO - 10.1007/s10021-008-9201-9

M3 - Article

VL - 12

SP - 16

EP - 32

JO - Ecosystems

JF - Ecosystems

SN - 1432-9840

IS - 1

ER -