Quantitative respirator fit tests of tucson fire fighters and measurement of negative pressure excursions during exertion

Jefferey L Burgess, Clifton D. Crutchfield

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Abstract

Pressure-demand self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) respirators are designed to maintain a positive pressure inside the facepiece at all times and therefore provide a high degree of respiratory protection. However, under conditions of high exertion fire fighters may overbreathe their respirators and transiently develop negative facepiece pressures. For pressure-demand respirators, facepiece leakage requires both negative pressure excursions and poor facepiece fit. Tucson Fire Department (TFD) fire fighters were studied to determine if this overbreathing poses a potential health threat, and if quantitative respirator fit testing could improve fire fighter safety. TFD fire fighters wear SCOTT 4.5 unit pressure-demand SCBA. Controlled negative pressure (CNP) fit testing demonstrated low facepiece leakage (<10 cc/min at —0.51 inches of water) in 78 percent of 102 TFD fire fighters and in 82 percent of 51 fire fighters fit for a large facepiece using a qualitative technique. The maximum leakage in a fire fighter fit for a large facepiece was 1530 cc/min. Treadmill testing of 10 fire fighters revealed that they all had facepiece negative pressure excursions (mean negative pressure 0.071 ± 0.024 inches of water; mean duration of negative pressure excursions 3.41 ± 2.04%). Application of the maximum measured negative pressure excursion during treadmill testing to the worst facepiece leakage rate measured during CNP fit testing resulted in a calculated protection factor of 4000. All other fire fighters fit for a large facepiece had a calculated protection factor of over 10,000. While not essential, CNP respirator fit testing can provide important information for fire fighters using pressure-demand SCBA. Burgess, J.L.; Crutchfield, C.D.: Quantitative Respirator Fit Tests of Tucson Fire Fighters and Measurement of Negative Pressure Excursions During Exertion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)26-29
Number of pages4
JournalApplied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Volume10
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 1995
Externally publishedYes

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Firefighters
Mechanical Ventilators
Pressure
Respiration
Negative-Pressure Ventilators
Water

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

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title = "Quantitative respirator fit tests of tucson fire fighters and measurement of negative pressure excursions during exertion",
abstract = "Pressure-demand self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) respirators are designed to maintain a positive pressure inside the facepiece at all times and therefore provide a high degree of respiratory protection. However, under conditions of high exertion fire fighters may overbreathe their respirators and transiently develop negative facepiece pressures. For pressure-demand respirators, facepiece leakage requires both negative pressure excursions and poor facepiece fit. Tucson Fire Department (TFD) fire fighters were studied to determine if this overbreathing poses a potential health threat, and if quantitative respirator fit testing could improve fire fighter safety. TFD fire fighters wear SCOTT 4.5 unit pressure-demand SCBA. Controlled negative pressure (CNP) fit testing demonstrated low facepiece leakage (<10 cc/min at —0.51 inches of water) in 78 percent of 102 TFD fire fighters and in 82 percent of 51 fire fighters fit for a large facepiece using a qualitative technique. The maximum leakage in a fire fighter fit for a large facepiece was 1530 cc/min. Treadmill testing of 10 fire fighters revealed that they all had facepiece negative pressure excursions (mean negative pressure 0.071 ± 0.024 inches of water; mean duration of negative pressure excursions 3.41 ± 2.04{\%}). Application of the maximum measured negative pressure excursion during treadmill testing to the worst facepiece leakage rate measured during CNP fit testing resulted in a calculated protection factor of 4000. All other fire fighters fit for a large facepiece had a calculated protection factor of over 10,000. While not essential, CNP respirator fit testing can provide important information for fire fighters using pressure-demand SCBA. Burgess, J.L.; Crutchfield, C.D.: Quantitative Respirator Fit Tests of Tucson Fire Fighters and Measurement of Negative Pressure Excursions During Exertion.",
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N2 - Pressure-demand self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) respirators are designed to maintain a positive pressure inside the facepiece at all times and therefore provide a high degree of respiratory protection. However, under conditions of high exertion fire fighters may overbreathe their respirators and transiently develop negative facepiece pressures. For pressure-demand respirators, facepiece leakage requires both negative pressure excursions and poor facepiece fit. Tucson Fire Department (TFD) fire fighters were studied to determine if this overbreathing poses a potential health threat, and if quantitative respirator fit testing could improve fire fighter safety. TFD fire fighters wear SCOTT 4.5 unit pressure-demand SCBA. Controlled negative pressure (CNP) fit testing demonstrated low facepiece leakage (<10 cc/min at —0.51 inches of water) in 78 percent of 102 TFD fire fighters and in 82 percent of 51 fire fighters fit for a large facepiece using a qualitative technique. The maximum leakage in a fire fighter fit for a large facepiece was 1530 cc/min. Treadmill testing of 10 fire fighters revealed that they all had facepiece negative pressure excursions (mean negative pressure 0.071 ± 0.024 inches of water; mean duration of negative pressure excursions 3.41 ± 2.04%). Application of the maximum measured negative pressure excursion during treadmill testing to the worst facepiece leakage rate measured during CNP fit testing resulted in a calculated protection factor of 4000. All other fire fighters fit for a large facepiece had a calculated protection factor of over 10,000. While not essential, CNP respirator fit testing can provide important information for fire fighters using pressure-demand SCBA. Burgess, J.L.; Crutchfield, C.D.: Quantitative Respirator Fit Tests of Tucson Fire Fighters and Measurement of Negative Pressure Excursions During Exertion.

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