We study the quantum motion of an impurity atom immersed in a Bose-Einstein condensate in arbitrary dimensions. It was shown, for all dimensions, that the Bogoliubov excitations of the Bose-Einstein condensate act as a bosonic bath for the impurity, where linear coupling is possible for a certain regime of validity, which was assessed only in one dimension. Here we present the detailed derivation of the d-dimensional Langevin equations that describe the quantum dynamics of the system, and of the associated generalized tensor that describes the spectral density in the full generality, and assesses the linear assumption in all dimensions. As results, we obtain, when the impurity is not trapped, the mean square displacement in all dimensions, showing that the motion is superdiffusive. We obtain also explicit expressions for the superdiffusive coefficient in the small and large temperature limits. We find that, in the latter case, the maximal value of this coefficient is the same in all dimensions, but is only reachable in one dimension, within the validity of the assumptions. We study also the behavior of the average energy and compare the results for various dimensions. In the trapped case, we study squeezing and find that the stronger position squeezing can be obtained in lower dimensions. We quantify the non-Markovianity of the particle's motion and find that it increases with dimensionality.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics