We analyze the fundamental quantum limit of the resolution of an optical imaging system from the perspective of the detection problem of deciding whether the optical field in the image plane is generated by one incoherent on-axis source with brightness ϵ or by two ϵ∕ 2 -brightness incoherent sources that are symmetrically disposed about the optical axis. Using the exact thermal-state model of the field, we derive the quantum Chernoff bound for the detection problem, which specifies the optimum rate of decay of the error probability with increasing number of collected photons that is allowed by quantum mechanics. We then show that recently proposed linear-optic schemes approach the quantum Chernoff bound—the method of binary spatial-mode demultiplexing (B-SPADE) is quantum-optimal for all values of separation, while a method using image inversion interferometry (SLIVER) is near-optimal for sub-Rayleigh separations. We then simplify our model using a low-brightness approximation that is very accurate for optical microscopy and astronomy, derive quantum Chernoff bounds conditional on the number of photons detected, and show the optimality of our schemes in this conditional detection paradigm. For comparison, we analytically demonstrate the superior scaling of the Chernoff bound for our schemes with source separation relative to that of spatially resolved direct imaging. Our schemes have the advantages over the quantum-optimal (Helstrom) measurement in that they do not involve joint measurements over multiple modes, and that they do not require the angular separation for the two-source hypothesis to be given a priori and can offer that information as a bonus in the event of a successful detection.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Computer Science (miscellaneous)
- Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
- Computer Networks and Communications
- Computational Theory and Mathematics