Race and BMI modify associations of calcium and vitamin D intake with prostate cancer

Ken Batai, Adam B. Murphy, Maria Ruden, Jennifer Newsome, Ebony Shah, Michael A. Dixon, Elizabeth T Jacobs, Courtney M P Hollowell, Chiledum Ahaghotu, Rick A Kittles

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: African Americans have disproportionately higher burden of prostate cancer compared to European Americans. However, the cause of prostate cancer disparities is still unclear. Several roles have been proposed for calcium and vitamin D in prostate cancer pathogenesis and progression, but epidemiologic studies have been conducted mainly in European descent populations. Here we investigated the association of calcium and vitamin D intake with prostate cancer in multiethnic samples. Methods: A total of 1,657 prostate cancer patients who underwent screening and healthy controls (888 African Americans, 620 European Americans, 111 Hispanic Americans, and 38 others) from Chicago, IL and Washington, D.C. were included in this study. Calcium and vitamin D intake were evaluated using food frequency questionnaire. We performed unconditional logistic regression analyses adjusting for relevant variables. Results: In the pooled data set, high calcium intake was significantly associated with higher odds for aggressive prostate cancer (ORQuartile 1 vs. Quartile 4 = 1.98, 95% C.I.: 1.01-3.91), while high vitamin D intake was associated with lower odds of aggressive prostate cancer (ORQuartile 1 vs. Quartile 4 = 0.38, 95% C.I.: 0.18-0.79). In African Americans, the association between high calcium intake and aggressive prostate cancer was statistically significant (ORQuartile 1 vs. Quartile 4 = 4.28, 95% C.I.: 1.70-10.80). We also observed a strong inverse association between total vitamin D intake and prostate cancer in African Americans (ORQuartile 1 vs. Quartile 4 = 0.06, 95% C.I.: 0.02-0.54). In European Americas, we did not observe any significant associations between either calcium or vitamin D intake and prostate cancer. In analyses stratifying participants based on Body Mass Index (BMI), we observed a strong positive association between calcium and aggressive prostate cancer and a strong inverse association between vitamin D intake and aggressive prostate cancer among men with low BMI (<27.8 kg/m2), but not among men with high BMI (≥27.8 kg/m2). Interactions of race and BMI with vitamin D intake were significant (P Interaction < 0.05). Conclusion: Calcium intake was positively associated with aggressive prostate cancer, while vitamin D intake exhibited an inverse relationship. However, these associations varied by race/ethnicity and BMI. The findings from this study may help develop better prostate cancer prevention and management strategies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number64
JournalBMC Cancer
Volume17
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 19 2017

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Vitamin D
Prostatic Neoplasms
Body Mass Index
Calcium
African Americans
Hispanic Americans
Epidemiologic Studies
Logistic Models
Regression Analysis

Keywords

  • African Americans
  • Calcium intake
  • Prostate cancer
  • Vitamin D intake

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Genetics
  • Cancer Research

Cite this

Race and BMI modify associations of calcium and vitamin D intake with prostate cancer. / Batai, Ken; Murphy, Adam B.; Ruden, Maria; Newsome, Jennifer; Shah, Ebony; Dixon, Michael A.; Jacobs, Elizabeth T; Hollowell, Courtney M P; Ahaghotu, Chiledum; Kittles, Rick A.

In: BMC Cancer, Vol. 17, No. 1, 64, 19.01.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Batai, K, Murphy, AB, Ruden, M, Newsome, J, Shah, E, Dixon, MA, Jacobs, ET, Hollowell, CMP, Ahaghotu, C & Kittles, RA 2017, 'Race and BMI modify associations of calcium and vitamin D intake with prostate cancer', BMC Cancer, vol. 17, no. 1, 64. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-017-3060-8
Batai K, Murphy AB, Ruden M, Newsome J, Shah E, Dixon MA et al. Race and BMI modify associations of calcium and vitamin D intake with prostate cancer. BMC Cancer. 2017 Jan 19;17(1). 64. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-017-3060-8
Batai, Ken ; Murphy, Adam B. ; Ruden, Maria ; Newsome, Jennifer ; Shah, Ebony ; Dixon, Michael A. ; Jacobs, Elizabeth T ; Hollowell, Courtney M P ; Ahaghotu, Chiledum ; Kittles, Rick A. / Race and BMI modify associations of calcium and vitamin D intake with prostate cancer. In: BMC Cancer. 2017 ; Vol. 17, No. 1.
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abstract = "Background: African Americans have disproportionately higher burden of prostate cancer compared to European Americans. However, the cause of prostate cancer disparities is still unclear. Several roles have been proposed for calcium and vitamin D in prostate cancer pathogenesis and progression, but epidemiologic studies have been conducted mainly in European descent populations. Here we investigated the association of calcium and vitamin D intake with prostate cancer in multiethnic samples. Methods: A total of 1,657 prostate cancer patients who underwent screening and healthy controls (888 African Americans, 620 European Americans, 111 Hispanic Americans, and 38 others) from Chicago, IL and Washington, D.C. were included in this study. Calcium and vitamin D intake were evaluated using food frequency questionnaire. We performed unconditional logistic regression analyses adjusting for relevant variables. Results: In the pooled data set, high calcium intake was significantly associated with higher odds for aggressive prostate cancer (ORQuartile 1 vs. Quartile 4 = 1.98, 95{\%} C.I.: 1.01-3.91), while high vitamin D intake was associated with lower odds of aggressive prostate cancer (ORQuartile 1 vs. Quartile 4 = 0.38, 95{\%} C.I.: 0.18-0.79). In African Americans, the association between high calcium intake and aggressive prostate cancer was statistically significant (ORQuartile 1 vs. Quartile 4 = 4.28, 95{\%} C.I.: 1.70-10.80). We also observed a strong inverse association between total vitamin D intake and prostate cancer in African Americans (ORQuartile 1 vs. Quartile 4 = 0.06, 95{\%} C.I.: 0.02-0.54). In European Americas, we did not observe any significant associations between either calcium or vitamin D intake and prostate cancer. In analyses stratifying participants based on Body Mass Index (BMI), we observed a strong positive association between calcium and aggressive prostate cancer and a strong inverse association between vitamin D intake and aggressive prostate cancer among men with low BMI (<27.8 kg/m2), but not among men with high BMI (≥27.8 kg/m2). Interactions of race and BMI with vitamin D intake were significant (P Interaction < 0.05). Conclusion: Calcium intake was positively associated with aggressive prostate cancer, while vitamin D intake exhibited an inverse relationship. However, these associations varied by race/ethnicity and BMI. The findings from this study may help develop better prostate cancer prevention and management strategies.",
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AU - Jacobs, Elizabeth T

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AB - Background: African Americans have disproportionately higher burden of prostate cancer compared to European Americans. However, the cause of prostate cancer disparities is still unclear. Several roles have been proposed for calcium and vitamin D in prostate cancer pathogenesis and progression, but epidemiologic studies have been conducted mainly in European descent populations. Here we investigated the association of calcium and vitamin D intake with prostate cancer in multiethnic samples. Methods: A total of 1,657 prostate cancer patients who underwent screening and healthy controls (888 African Americans, 620 European Americans, 111 Hispanic Americans, and 38 others) from Chicago, IL and Washington, D.C. were included in this study. Calcium and vitamin D intake were evaluated using food frequency questionnaire. We performed unconditional logistic regression analyses adjusting for relevant variables. Results: In the pooled data set, high calcium intake was significantly associated with higher odds for aggressive prostate cancer (ORQuartile 1 vs. Quartile 4 = 1.98, 95% C.I.: 1.01-3.91), while high vitamin D intake was associated with lower odds of aggressive prostate cancer (ORQuartile 1 vs. Quartile 4 = 0.38, 95% C.I.: 0.18-0.79). In African Americans, the association between high calcium intake and aggressive prostate cancer was statistically significant (ORQuartile 1 vs. Quartile 4 = 4.28, 95% C.I.: 1.70-10.80). We also observed a strong inverse association between total vitamin D intake and prostate cancer in African Americans (ORQuartile 1 vs. Quartile 4 = 0.06, 95% C.I.: 0.02-0.54). In European Americas, we did not observe any significant associations between either calcium or vitamin D intake and prostate cancer. In analyses stratifying participants based on Body Mass Index (BMI), we observed a strong positive association between calcium and aggressive prostate cancer and a strong inverse association between vitamin D intake and aggressive prostate cancer among men with low BMI (<27.8 kg/m2), but not among men with high BMI (≥27.8 kg/m2). Interactions of race and BMI with vitamin D intake were significant (P Interaction < 0.05). Conclusion: Calcium intake was positively associated with aggressive prostate cancer, while vitamin D intake exhibited an inverse relationship. However, these associations varied by race/ethnicity and BMI. The findings from this study may help develop better prostate cancer prevention and management strategies.

KW - African Americans

KW - Calcium intake

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