Objective B lymphocytes are generally considered to be activators of the immune response; however, recent findings have shown that a subtype of B lymphocytes, regulatory B lymphocytes, play a role in attenuating the immune response. Bronchiolitis obliterans remains the major limitation to modern-day lung transplantation. The role of regulatory B lymphocytes in bronchiolitis obliterans has not been elucidated. We hypothesized that regulatory B lymphocytes play a role in the attenuation of bronchiolitis obliterans. Methods We performed a standard heterotopic tracheal transplant model. Tracheas from Balb/c mice were transplanted into C57BL/6 recipients. Rapamycin treatment and dimethyl sulfoxide control groups were each treated for the first 14 days after the transplant. Tracheas were collected on days 7, 14, and 28 post-transplantation. Luminal obliteration was evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin staining and Picrosirius red staining. Immune cell infiltration and characteristics, and secretion of interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-β1 were accessed by immunohistochemistry. Cytokines and transforming growth factor-β1 were measured using the Luminex assay (Bio-Rad, Hercules, Calif). Results The results revealed that intraperitoneal injection of rapamycin for 14 days after tracheal transplantation significantly reduced luminal obliteration on day 28 when compared with the dimethyl sulfoxide control group (97.78% ± 3.63% vs 3.02% ± 2.14%, P <.001). Rapamycin treatment markedly induced regulatory B lymphocytes (B220+IgM+IgG-IL-10+TGF-β1+) cells when compared with dimethyl sulfoxide controls. Rapamycin treatment inhibited interleukin-1β, 6, 13, and 17 on days 7 and 14. Rapamycin also greatly increased interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-β1 production in B cells and regulatory T lymphocytes infiltration on day 28. Conclusions Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibition decreases the development of bronchiolitis obliterans via inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines and increasing regulatory B lymphocytes cell infiltration, which subsequently produces anti-inflammatory cytokines and upregulates regulatory T lymphocyte cells.
- Bronchiolitis obliterans
- FoxP3β regulatory T cells
- Mouse heterotopic tracheal transplant
- Regulatory B lymphocytes
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine