Reasoning and Rationality

Colin Allen, Peter M. Todd, Jonathan M Weinberg

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

The article explores five parts of Cartesian thought that include individualism, internalism, rationalism, universalism, and human exceptionalism demonstrating the philosophical and psychological theories of rationality. Ecological rationality comes about through the coadaptation of minds and their environments. The internal bounds comprising the capacities of the cognitive system can be shaped by evolution, learning, or development to take advantage of the structure of the external environment. The external bounds, comprising the structure of information available in the environment, can be shaped by the effects of minds making decisions in the world, including most notably in humans the process of cultural evolution. The internal constraints on decision-making including limited computational power and limited memory in the organism and the external ones include limited time push toward simple cognitive mechanisms for making decisions quickly and without much information. Human exceptionalism is one of the strands of Residual Cartesianism that puts the greatest focus on language and symbolic reasoning as the basis for human rationality. The invention of symbolic systems exhibits how humans deliberately and creatively alter their environments to enhance learning and memory and to support reasoning. Nonhuman animals also alter their environments in ways that support adaptive behavior. Stigmergy, an important mechanism for swarm intelligence, is the product of interactions among multiple agents and their environments. It is enhanced through cumulative modification, of the environment by individuals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationThe Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Cognitive Science
PublisherOxford University Press
ISBN (Print)9780199940967, 9780195309799
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2012

Fingerprint

Rationality
Decision Making
Exceptionalism
Rationalism
Ecological Rationality
Interaction
Nonhuman Animals
Thought
Language
Cartesianism
Philosophical Theories
Cartesian
Symbolic Systems
Cultural Evolution
Organism
Individualism
Learning and Memory
Universalism
Invention
Computational

Keywords

  • Ecological rationality
  • Human exceptionalism
  • Individualism
  • Reasoning and rationality
  • Residual cartesianism
  • Social rationality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Arts and Humanities(all)

Cite this

Allen, C., Todd, P. M., & Weinberg, J. M. (2012). Reasoning and Rationality. In The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Cognitive Science Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195309799.013.0003

Reasoning and Rationality. / Allen, Colin; Todd, Peter M.; Weinberg, Jonathan M.

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Cognitive Science. Oxford University Press, 2012.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Allen, C, Todd, PM & Weinberg, JM 2012, Reasoning and Rationality. in The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Cognitive Science. Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195309799.013.0003
Allen C, Todd PM, Weinberg JM. Reasoning and Rationality. In The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Cognitive Science. Oxford University Press. 2012 https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195309799.013.0003
Allen, Colin ; Todd, Peter M. ; Weinberg, Jonathan M. / Reasoning and Rationality. The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Cognitive Science. Oxford University Press, 2012.
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