Introduction: Keratoconus and ectatic corneal diseases represent a hot area of research. The need to enhance diagnosis in order to recognize milder forms of the disease and identify inherent predisposition for ectasia progression has gained significant importance because of refractive surgery and also due to the development of new treatment modalities to treat ectatic corneal diseases. This article discusses the nomenclature related to the diagnostic tests used to characterize keratoconus and ectatic corneal diseases, providing a prospective discussion on the latest developments for the diagnosis and follow up of these conditions, including imaging modalities, biomechanical assessments, and an outlook in genetics and molecular biology. Areas covered: We performed an extensive Pubmed literature search, considering the latest developments in the diagnosis of keratoconus and additional ectatic corneal diseases. Expert commentary: Corneal ectasia is characterized by biomechanical failure and stromal thinning, causing corneal bulging with subsequent visual impairment due to irregular astigmatism. Moderate and advanced stages are easily recognized, but the identification of mild or subclinical forms remains a challenge.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biomedical Engineering