We have been developing focal-plane phase-mask coronagraphs ultimately aiming at direct detection and characterization of Earth-like extrasolar planets by future space coronagraph missions. By utilizing photonic-crystal technology, we manufactured various coronagraphic phase masks such as eight-octant phase masks (8OPMs), 2nd-order vector vortex masks, and a 4th-order discrete (32-sector) vector vortex mask. Our laboratory experiments show that the 4th-order vortex mask reaches to higher contrast than the 2nd-order one at inner region on a focal plane. These results demonstrate that the higher-order vortex mask is tolerant of low-order phase aberrations such as tip-tilt errors. We also carried out laboratory demonstration of the 2nd-order vector vortex masks in the High-Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and obtained 10-8-level contrast owing to an adaptive optics system for creating dark holes. In addition, we manufactured a polarization-filtered 8OPM, which theoretically realizes achromatic performance. We tested the manufactured polarization-filtered 8OPM in the Infrared Coronagraphic Testbed (IRCT) at the JPL. Polychromatic light sources are used for evaluating the achromatic performance. The results suggest that 10-5- level peak-to-peak contrasts would be obtained over a wavelength range of 800-900 nm. For installing the focal-plane phase-mask coronagraph into a conventional centrally-obscured telescope with a secondary mirror, pupil-remapping plates have been manufactured for removing the central obscuration to enhance the coronagraphic performance. A result of preliminary laboratory demonstration of the pupil-remapping plates is also reported. In this paper, we present our recent activities of the photonic-crystal phase coronagraphic masks and related techniques for the high-contrast imaging.