Reducing free residual chlorine using four simple physical methods in drinking water: effect of different parameters, monitoring microbial regrowth of culturable heterotrophic bacteria, and kinetic and thermodynamic studies

Razieh Sheikhi, Amir Hossein Mahvi, Abbas Norouzian Baghani, Mahdi Hadi, Armin Sorooshian, Mahdieh Delikhoon, Somayeh Golbaz, Arash Dalvand, Fatemeh Johar, Mohammad Rezvani Ghalhari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

While chlorination is critical for water disinfection, a knowledge gap includes the nature of free residual chlorine (FRC) decay, which was investigated using four physical methods (SSA, SSR with and without a lid, heating, and incubator shaker). Keeping water samples in SSA and SSR methods for 24 h resulted in the FRC decline by 62% and 51%, respectively. The heterotrophic plate count (HPC) increased significantly between initial (3.17 ± 2.6–3.82 ± 1.1 CFU/mL) and final samples (6.7 ± 1.5–94.7 ± 4.72 CFU/mL) for both SSA and SSR methods. Thermodynamic behavior (ΔH versus ΔG) of FRC decay of the different methods was characterized.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalToxin Reviews
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2020

Keywords

  • Drinking water
  • HPC
  • chlorination
  • free residual chlorine
  • thermokinetics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology

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