Reduction of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with type 2 diabetes by Pycnogenol supplementation

Sherma Zibadi, Peter J. Rohdewald, Danna Park, Ronald R Watson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

71 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Patients with type 2 diabetes are at considerable risk of excessive morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated the clinical effectiveness of Pycnogenol, a flavonoid-rich dietary supplement, in reducing antihypertensive medication use and CVD risk factors in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Forty-eight individuals were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with parallel-group design. Patients were diagnosed with both type 2 diabetes and mild to moderate hypertension and were undergoing treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either Pycnogenol pill (125 mg daily) or matched placebo for 12 weeks. According to the values of blood pressure (BP) measured at 2-week intervals, the pretrial ACE inhibitor dosage was left unchanged, reduced by 50%, or brought back to the pretrial dosage until a stable BP was obtained. Fasting plasma glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), serum endothelin-1, and urinary albumin were evaluated monthly. Pycnogenol treatment achieved BP control in 58.3% of subjects at the end of the 12 weeks with 50% reduction in individual pretrial dose of ACE-inhibitors (P <.05). Plasma endothelin-1 decreased by 3.9 pg/mL in Pycnogenol-treated group vs 0.5 pg/mL increase in control group (P < .001). Mean HbA1c dropped by 0.8% in Pycnogenol-treated group (P < .05), whereas it decreased by 0.1% in control group. Fasting plasma glucose declined by 23.7 mg/dL in Pycnogenol-treated group vs 5.7 mg/dL in control group (P < .0001). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol improved significantly in Pycnogenol-treated group, declining by 12.7 mg/dL (P < .001). A significant decrease in urinary albumin level was observed at week 8 compared with the control group (P < .05). However, this reduction was not significant at 12th week. After 12 weeks of supplementation, Pycnogenol resulted in improved diabetes control, lowered CVD risk factors, and reduced antihypertensive medicine use vs controls.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)315-320
Number of pages6
JournalNutrition Research
Volume28
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2008

Fingerprint

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
Control Groups
Cardiovascular Diseases
Endothelin-1
Blood Pressure
LDL Cholesterol
Antihypertensive Agents
Albumins
Fasting
Placebos
Glucose
pycnogenols
Glycosylated Hemoglobin A
Dietary Supplements
Flavonoids
Medicine
Hypertension
Morbidity
Mortality

Keywords

  • ACE inhibitors
  • angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
  • Antioxidant
  • blood pressure
  • BP
  • cardiovascular disease
  • CVD
  • Diabetes
  • Flavonoid
  • glycosylated hemoglobin
  • HbA1c
  • Human
  • Hypertension
  • LDL-C
  • low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol
  • nitric oxide
  • NO
  • Pycnogenol

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Cite this

Reduction of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with type 2 diabetes by Pycnogenol supplementation. / Zibadi, Sherma; Rohdewald, Peter J.; Park, Danna; Watson, Ronald R.

In: Nutrition Research, Vol. 28, No. 5, 05.2008, p. 315-320.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Zibadi, Sherma ; Rohdewald, Peter J. ; Park, Danna ; Watson, Ronald R. / Reduction of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with type 2 diabetes by Pycnogenol supplementation. In: Nutrition Research. 2008 ; Vol. 28, No. 5. pp. 315-320.
@article{1f31fa8682b34dcab6c3684a0624ada1,
title = "Reduction of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with type 2 diabetes by Pycnogenol supplementation",
abstract = "Patients with type 2 diabetes are at considerable risk of excessive morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated the clinical effectiveness of Pycnogenol, a flavonoid-rich dietary supplement, in reducing antihypertensive medication use and CVD risk factors in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Forty-eight individuals were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with parallel-group design. Patients were diagnosed with both type 2 diabetes and mild to moderate hypertension and were undergoing treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either Pycnogenol pill (125 mg daily) or matched placebo for 12 weeks. According to the values of blood pressure (BP) measured at 2-week intervals, the pretrial ACE inhibitor dosage was left unchanged, reduced by 50{\%}, or brought back to the pretrial dosage until a stable BP was obtained. Fasting plasma glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), serum endothelin-1, and urinary albumin were evaluated monthly. Pycnogenol treatment achieved BP control in 58.3{\%} of subjects at the end of the 12 weeks with 50{\%} reduction in individual pretrial dose of ACE-inhibitors (P <.05). Plasma endothelin-1 decreased by 3.9 pg/mL in Pycnogenol-treated group vs 0.5 pg/mL increase in control group (P < .001). Mean HbA1c dropped by 0.8{\%} in Pycnogenol-treated group (P < .05), whereas it decreased by 0.1{\%} in control group. Fasting plasma glucose declined by 23.7 mg/dL in Pycnogenol-treated group vs 5.7 mg/dL in control group (P < .0001). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol improved significantly in Pycnogenol-treated group, declining by 12.7 mg/dL (P < .001). A significant decrease in urinary albumin level was observed at week 8 compared with the control group (P < .05). However, this reduction was not significant at 12th week. After 12 weeks of supplementation, Pycnogenol resulted in improved diabetes control, lowered CVD risk factors, and reduced antihypertensive medicine use vs controls.",
keywords = "ACE inhibitors, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, Antioxidant, blood pressure, BP, cardiovascular disease, CVD, Diabetes, Flavonoid, glycosylated hemoglobin, HbA1c, Human, Hypertension, LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, nitric oxide, NO, Pycnogenol",
author = "Sherma Zibadi and Rohdewald, {Peter J.} and Danna Park and Watson, {Ronald R}",
year = "2008",
month = "5",
doi = "10.1016/j.nutres.2008.03.003",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "28",
pages = "315--320",
journal = "Nutrition Research",
issn = "0271-5317",
publisher = "Elsevier Inc.",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Reduction of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with type 2 diabetes by Pycnogenol supplementation

AU - Zibadi, Sherma

AU - Rohdewald, Peter J.

AU - Park, Danna

AU - Watson, Ronald R

PY - 2008/5

Y1 - 2008/5

N2 - Patients with type 2 diabetes are at considerable risk of excessive morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated the clinical effectiveness of Pycnogenol, a flavonoid-rich dietary supplement, in reducing antihypertensive medication use and CVD risk factors in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Forty-eight individuals were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with parallel-group design. Patients were diagnosed with both type 2 diabetes and mild to moderate hypertension and were undergoing treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either Pycnogenol pill (125 mg daily) or matched placebo for 12 weeks. According to the values of blood pressure (BP) measured at 2-week intervals, the pretrial ACE inhibitor dosage was left unchanged, reduced by 50%, or brought back to the pretrial dosage until a stable BP was obtained. Fasting plasma glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), serum endothelin-1, and urinary albumin were evaluated monthly. Pycnogenol treatment achieved BP control in 58.3% of subjects at the end of the 12 weeks with 50% reduction in individual pretrial dose of ACE-inhibitors (P <.05). Plasma endothelin-1 decreased by 3.9 pg/mL in Pycnogenol-treated group vs 0.5 pg/mL increase in control group (P < .001). Mean HbA1c dropped by 0.8% in Pycnogenol-treated group (P < .05), whereas it decreased by 0.1% in control group. Fasting plasma glucose declined by 23.7 mg/dL in Pycnogenol-treated group vs 5.7 mg/dL in control group (P < .0001). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol improved significantly in Pycnogenol-treated group, declining by 12.7 mg/dL (P < .001). A significant decrease in urinary albumin level was observed at week 8 compared with the control group (P < .05). However, this reduction was not significant at 12th week. After 12 weeks of supplementation, Pycnogenol resulted in improved diabetes control, lowered CVD risk factors, and reduced antihypertensive medicine use vs controls.

AB - Patients with type 2 diabetes are at considerable risk of excessive morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated the clinical effectiveness of Pycnogenol, a flavonoid-rich dietary supplement, in reducing antihypertensive medication use and CVD risk factors in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Forty-eight individuals were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with parallel-group design. Patients were diagnosed with both type 2 diabetes and mild to moderate hypertension and were undergoing treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either Pycnogenol pill (125 mg daily) or matched placebo for 12 weeks. According to the values of blood pressure (BP) measured at 2-week intervals, the pretrial ACE inhibitor dosage was left unchanged, reduced by 50%, or brought back to the pretrial dosage until a stable BP was obtained. Fasting plasma glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), serum endothelin-1, and urinary albumin were evaluated monthly. Pycnogenol treatment achieved BP control in 58.3% of subjects at the end of the 12 weeks with 50% reduction in individual pretrial dose of ACE-inhibitors (P <.05). Plasma endothelin-1 decreased by 3.9 pg/mL in Pycnogenol-treated group vs 0.5 pg/mL increase in control group (P < .001). Mean HbA1c dropped by 0.8% in Pycnogenol-treated group (P < .05), whereas it decreased by 0.1% in control group. Fasting plasma glucose declined by 23.7 mg/dL in Pycnogenol-treated group vs 5.7 mg/dL in control group (P < .0001). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol improved significantly in Pycnogenol-treated group, declining by 12.7 mg/dL (P < .001). A significant decrease in urinary albumin level was observed at week 8 compared with the control group (P < .05). However, this reduction was not significant at 12th week. After 12 weeks of supplementation, Pycnogenol resulted in improved diabetes control, lowered CVD risk factors, and reduced antihypertensive medicine use vs controls.

KW - ACE inhibitors

KW - angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors

KW - Antioxidant

KW - blood pressure

KW - BP

KW - cardiovascular disease

KW - CVD

KW - Diabetes

KW - Flavonoid

KW - glycosylated hemoglobin

KW - HbA1c

KW - Human

KW - Hypertension

KW - LDL-C

KW - low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol

KW - nitric oxide

KW - NO

KW - Pycnogenol

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=42949094141&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=42949094141&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.nutres.2008.03.003

DO - 10.1016/j.nutres.2008.03.003

M3 - Article

C2 - 19083426

AN - SCOPUS:42949094141

VL - 28

SP - 315

EP - 320

JO - Nutrition Research

JF - Nutrition Research

SN - 0271-5317

IS - 5

ER -