Insect herbivores use phytochemicals as signals to induce expression of their phytochemical-detoxifying cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s). The regulatory cascades that transduce phytochemical signals to enhanced expression of P450s are the focus of this review. At least seven signaling pathways, including RTK/MAPK, GPCR/CREB, GPCR/NFκB, ROS/CncC/Keap1, AhR/ARNT, cytosol NR, and nucleus-located NR, may be involved in phytochemical induction of P450s. Constitutive overexpression, overphosphorylation, and/or activation of one or more effectors in the corresponding pathway are common causes of P450 overexpression that lead to phytochemical or insecticide resistance. Future research should pay more attentions to the starting point of each pathway, the number of pathways and their cross talk for a given phytochemical, and the pathways for downregulation of P450s.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Insect Science