Relationship between mass-flux reduction and source-zone mass removal

Analysis of field data

Erica L. DiFilippo, Mark L Brusseau

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

55 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The magnitude of contaminant mass-flux reduction associated with a specific amount of contaminant mass removed is a key consideration for evaluating the effectiveness of a source-zone remediation effort. Thus, there is great interest in characterizing, estimating, and predicting relationships between mass-flux reduction and mass removal. Published data collected for several field studies were examined to evaluate relationships between mass-flux reduction and source-zone mass removal. The studies analyzed herein represent a variety of source-zone architectures, immiscible-liquid compositions, and implemented remediation technologies. There are two general approaches to characterizing the mass-flux-reduction/mass-removal relationship, end-point analysis and time-continuous analysis. End-point analysis, based on comparing masses and mass fluxes measured before and after a source-zone remediation effort, was conducted for 21 remediation projects. Mass removals were greater than 60% for all but three of the studies. Mass-flux reductions ranging from slightly less than to slightly greater than one-to-one were observed for the majority of the sites. However, these single-snapshot characterizations are limited in that the antecedent behavior is indeterminate. Time-continuous analysis, based on continuous monitoring of mass removal and mass flux, was performed for two sites, both for which data were obtained under water-flushing conditions. The reductions in mass flux were significantly different for the two sites (90% vs. ∼ 8%) for similar mass removals (∼ 40%). These results illustrate the dependence of the mass-flux-reduction/mass-removal relationship on source-zone architecture and associated mass-transfer processes. Minimal mass-flux reduction was observed for a system wherein mass removal was relatively efficient (ideal mass-transfer and displacement). Conversely, a significant degree of mass-flux reduction was observed for a site wherein mass removal was inefficient (non-ideal mass-transfer and displacement). The mass-flux-reduction/mass-removal relationship for the latter site exhibited a multi-step behavior, which cannot be predicted using some of the available simple estimation functions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)22-35
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Contaminant Hydrology
Volume98
Issue number1-2
DOIs
StatePublished - May 26 2008

Fingerprint

Mass transfer
Remediation
analysis
removal
remediation
mass transfer
Impurities
pollutant
flushing

Keywords

  • DNAPL
  • Mass flux
  • Remediation
  • Source zone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Earth-Surface Processes

Cite this

Relationship between mass-flux reduction and source-zone mass removal : Analysis of field data. / DiFilippo, Erica L.; Brusseau, Mark L.

In: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, Vol. 98, No. 1-2, 26.05.2008, p. 22-35.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{37e9c95acc2f4321a2675af579721555,
title = "Relationship between mass-flux reduction and source-zone mass removal: Analysis of field data",
abstract = "The magnitude of contaminant mass-flux reduction associated with a specific amount of contaminant mass removed is a key consideration for evaluating the effectiveness of a source-zone remediation effort. Thus, there is great interest in characterizing, estimating, and predicting relationships between mass-flux reduction and mass removal. Published data collected for several field studies were examined to evaluate relationships between mass-flux reduction and source-zone mass removal. The studies analyzed herein represent a variety of source-zone architectures, immiscible-liquid compositions, and implemented remediation technologies. There are two general approaches to characterizing the mass-flux-reduction/mass-removal relationship, end-point analysis and time-continuous analysis. End-point analysis, based on comparing masses and mass fluxes measured before and after a source-zone remediation effort, was conducted for 21 remediation projects. Mass removals were greater than 60{\%} for all but three of the studies. Mass-flux reductions ranging from slightly less than to slightly greater than one-to-one were observed for the majority of the sites. However, these single-snapshot characterizations are limited in that the antecedent behavior is indeterminate. Time-continuous analysis, based on continuous monitoring of mass removal and mass flux, was performed for two sites, both for which data were obtained under water-flushing conditions. The reductions in mass flux were significantly different for the two sites (90{\%} vs. ∼ 8{\%}) for similar mass removals (∼ 40{\%}). These results illustrate the dependence of the mass-flux-reduction/mass-removal relationship on source-zone architecture and associated mass-transfer processes. Minimal mass-flux reduction was observed for a system wherein mass removal was relatively efficient (ideal mass-transfer and displacement). Conversely, a significant degree of mass-flux reduction was observed for a site wherein mass removal was inefficient (non-ideal mass-transfer and displacement). The mass-flux-reduction/mass-removal relationship for the latter site exhibited a multi-step behavior, which cannot be predicted using some of the available simple estimation functions.",
keywords = "DNAPL, Mass flux, Remediation, Source zone",
author = "DiFilippo, {Erica L.} and Brusseau, {Mark L}",
year = "2008",
month = "5",
day = "26",
doi = "10.1016/j.jconhyd.2008.02.004",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "98",
pages = "22--35",
journal = "Journal of Contaminant Hydrology",
issn = "0169-7722",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "1-2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Relationship between mass-flux reduction and source-zone mass removal

T2 - Analysis of field data

AU - DiFilippo, Erica L.

AU - Brusseau, Mark L

PY - 2008/5/26

Y1 - 2008/5/26

N2 - The magnitude of contaminant mass-flux reduction associated with a specific amount of contaminant mass removed is a key consideration for evaluating the effectiveness of a source-zone remediation effort. Thus, there is great interest in characterizing, estimating, and predicting relationships between mass-flux reduction and mass removal. Published data collected for several field studies were examined to evaluate relationships between mass-flux reduction and source-zone mass removal. The studies analyzed herein represent a variety of source-zone architectures, immiscible-liquid compositions, and implemented remediation technologies. There are two general approaches to characterizing the mass-flux-reduction/mass-removal relationship, end-point analysis and time-continuous analysis. End-point analysis, based on comparing masses and mass fluxes measured before and after a source-zone remediation effort, was conducted for 21 remediation projects. Mass removals were greater than 60% for all but three of the studies. Mass-flux reductions ranging from slightly less than to slightly greater than one-to-one were observed for the majority of the sites. However, these single-snapshot characterizations are limited in that the antecedent behavior is indeterminate. Time-continuous analysis, based on continuous monitoring of mass removal and mass flux, was performed for two sites, both for which data were obtained under water-flushing conditions. The reductions in mass flux were significantly different for the two sites (90% vs. ∼ 8%) for similar mass removals (∼ 40%). These results illustrate the dependence of the mass-flux-reduction/mass-removal relationship on source-zone architecture and associated mass-transfer processes. Minimal mass-flux reduction was observed for a system wherein mass removal was relatively efficient (ideal mass-transfer and displacement). Conversely, a significant degree of mass-flux reduction was observed for a site wherein mass removal was inefficient (non-ideal mass-transfer and displacement). The mass-flux-reduction/mass-removal relationship for the latter site exhibited a multi-step behavior, which cannot be predicted using some of the available simple estimation functions.

AB - The magnitude of contaminant mass-flux reduction associated with a specific amount of contaminant mass removed is a key consideration for evaluating the effectiveness of a source-zone remediation effort. Thus, there is great interest in characterizing, estimating, and predicting relationships between mass-flux reduction and mass removal. Published data collected for several field studies were examined to evaluate relationships between mass-flux reduction and source-zone mass removal. The studies analyzed herein represent a variety of source-zone architectures, immiscible-liquid compositions, and implemented remediation technologies. There are two general approaches to characterizing the mass-flux-reduction/mass-removal relationship, end-point analysis and time-continuous analysis. End-point analysis, based on comparing masses and mass fluxes measured before and after a source-zone remediation effort, was conducted for 21 remediation projects. Mass removals were greater than 60% for all but three of the studies. Mass-flux reductions ranging from slightly less than to slightly greater than one-to-one were observed for the majority of the sites. However, these single-snapshot characterizations are limited in that the antecedent behavior is indeterminate. Time-continuous analysis, based on continuous monitoring of mass removal and mass flux, was performed for two sites, both for which data were obtained under water-flushing conditions. The reductions in mass flux were significantly different for the two sites (90% vs. ∼ 8%) for similar mass removals (∼ 40%). These results illustrate the dependence of the mass-flux-reduction/mass-removal relationship on source-zone architecture and associated mass-transfer processes. Minimal mass-flux reduction was observed for a system wherein mass removal was relatively efficient (ideal mass-transfer and displacement). Conversely, a significant degree of mass-flux reduction was observed for a site wherein mass removal was inefficient (non-ideal mass-transfer and displacement). The mass-flux-reduction/mass-removal relationship for the latter site exhibited a multi-step behavior, which cannot be predicted using some of the available simple estimation functions.

KW - DNAPL

KW - Mass flux

KW - Remediation

KW - Source zone

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=44149127439&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=44149127439&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.jconhyd.2008.02.004

DO - 10.1016/j.jconhyd.2008.02.004

M3 - Article

VL - 98

SP - 22

EP - 35

JO - Journal of Contaminant Hydrology

JF - Journal of Contaminant Hydrology

SN - 0169-7722

IS - 1-2

ER -