Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The adverse childhood experiences (ACE) study

Vincent J. Felitti, Robert F. Anda, Dale Nordenberg, David F. Williamson, Alison M. Spitz, Valerie Edwards, Mary P Koss, James S. Marks

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5537 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: The relationship of health risk behavior and disease in adulthood to the breadth of exposure to childhood emotional, physical, or sexual abuse, and household dysfunction during childhood has not previously been described. Methods: A questionnaire about adverse childhood experiences was mailed to 13,494 adults who had completed a standardized medical evaluation at a large HMO; 9,508 (70.5%) responded. Seven categories of adverse childhood experiences were studied: psychological, physical, or sexual abuse; violence against mother; or living with household members who were substance abusers, mentally ill or suicidal, or ever imprisoned. The number of categories of these adverse childhood experiences was then compared to measures of adult risk behavior, health status, and disease. Logistic regression was used to adjust for effects of demographic factors on the association between the cumulative number of categories of childhood exposures (range: 0-7) and risk factors for the leading causes of death in adult life. Results: More than half of respondents reported at least one, and one-fourth reported ≤2 categories of childhood exposures. We found a graded relationship between the number of categories of childhood exposure and each of the adult health risk behaviors and diseases that were studied (P < .001). Persons who had experienced four or more categories of childhood exposure, compared to those who had experienced none, had 4- to 12-fold increased health risks for alcoholism, drug abuse, depression, and suicide attempt; a 2- to 4-fold increase in smoking, poor self-rated health, ≤50 sexual intercourse partners, and sexually transmitted disease; and a 1.4- to 1.6- fold increase in physical inactivity and severe obesity. The number of categories of adverse childhood exposures showed a graded relationship to the presence of adult diseases including ischemic heart disease, cancer, chronic lung disease, skeletal fractures, and liver disease. The seven categories of adverse childhood experiences were strongly interrelated and persons with multiple categories of childhood exposure were likely to have multiple health risk factors later in life. Conclusions: We found a strong graded relationship between the breadth of exposure to abuse or household dysfunction during childhood and multiple risk factors for several of the leading causes of death in adults.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)245-258
Number of pages14
JournalAmerican Journal of Preventive Medicine
Volume14
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1998

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Cause of Death
Risk-Taking
Health
Sex Offenses
Heart Neoplasms
Morbid Obesity
Health Maintenance Organizations
Sexual Partners
Coitus
Mentally Ill Persons
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Violence
Suicide
Alcoholism
Lung Diseases
Health Status
Substance-Related Disorders
Myocardial Ischemia
Liver Diseases
Lung Neoplasms

Keywords

  • Alcoholism
  • Child abuse
  • Children of impaired parents
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  • Depression
  • Domestic violence
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Obesity
  • Physical activity
  • Sexual
  • Sexual behavior
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Smoking
  • Spouse abuse
  • Substance abuse
  • Suicide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults : The adverse childhood experiences (ACE) study. / Felitti, Vincent J.; Anda, Robert F.; Nordenberg, Dale; Williamson, David F.; Spitz, Alison M.; Edwards, Valerie; Koss, Mary P; Marks, James S.

In: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Vol. 14, No. 4, 05.1998, p. 245-258.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Felitti, Vincent J. ; Anda, Robert F. ; Nordenberg, Dale ; Williamson, David F. ; Spitz, Alison M. ; Edwards, Valerie ; Koss, Mary P ; Marks, James S. / Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults : The adverse childhood experiences (ACE) study. In: American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 1998 ; Vol. 14, No. 4. pp. 245-258.
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