RELICS: Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey

Dan Coe, Brett Salmon, Maruša Bradač, Larry D. Bradley, Keren Sharon, Adi Zitrin, Ana Acebron, Catherine Cerny, Nathália Cibirka, Victoria Strait, Rachel Paterno-Mahler, Guillaume Mahler, Roberto J. Avila, Sara Ogaz, Kuang Han Huang, Debora Pelliccia, Daniel P. Stark, Ramesh Mainali, Pascal A. Oesch, Michele TrentiDaniela Carrasco, William A. Dawson, Steven A. Rodney, Louis Gregory Strolger, Adam G. Riess, Christine Jones, Brenda L. Frye, Nicole G. Czakon, Keiichi Umetsu, Benedetta Vulcani, Or Graur, Saurabh W. Jha, Melissa L. Graham, Alberto Molino, Mario Nonino, Jens Hjorth, Jonatan Selsing, Lise Christensen, Shotaro Kikuchihara, Masami Ouchi, Masamune Oguri, Brian Welch, Brian C. Lemaux, Felipe Andrade-Santos, Austin T. Hoag, Traci L. Johnson, Avery Peterson, Matthew Past, Carter Fox, Irene Agulli, Rachael Livermore, Russell E. Ryan, Daniel Lam, Irene Sendra-Server, Sune Toft, Lorenzo Lovisari, Yuanyuan Su

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Large surveys of galaxy clusters with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and Spitzer, including the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble and the Frontier Fields, have demonstrated the power of strong gravitational lensing to efficiently deliver large samples of high-redshift galaxies. We extend this strategy through a wider, shallower survey named RELICS, the Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey, described here. Our 188-orbit Hubble Treasury Program observed 41 clusters at 0.182 ≤ z ≤ 0.972 with Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and WFC3/IR imaging spanning 0.4-1.7 μm. We selected 21 of the most massive clusters known based on Planck PSZ2 estimates and 20 additional clusters based on observed or inferred lensing strength. RELICS observed 46 WFC3/IR pointings (∼200 arcmin2) each with two orbits divided among four filters (F105W, F125W, F140W, and F160W) and ACS imaging as needed to achieve single-orbit depth in each of three filters (F435W, F606W, and F814W). As previously reported by Salmon et al., we discovered over 300 z ∼ 6-10 candidates, including the brightest z ∼ 6 candidates known, and the most distant spatially resolved lensed arc known at z ∼ 10. Spitzer IRAC imaging (945 hr awarded, plus 100 archival, spanning 3.0-5.0 μm) has crucially enabled us to distinguish z ∼ 10 candidates from z ∼ 2 interlopers. For each cluster, two HST observing epochs were staggered by about a month, enabling us to discover 11 supernovae, including 3 lensed supernovae, which we followed up with 20 orbits from our program. Reduced HST images, catalogs, and lens models are available on MAST, and reduced Spitzer images are available on IRSA.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number85
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume884
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 10 2019

Fingerprint

Hubble Space Telescope
orbits
supernovae
filter
cameras
galaxies
filters
catalogs
arcs
lenses
time measurement
estimates
programme

Keywords

  • dark ages, reionization, first stars
  • dark matter
  • galaxies: clusters: general
  • galaxies: high-redshift
  • gravitational lensing: strong
  • supernovae: general

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Coe, D., Salmon, B., Bradač, M., Bradley, L. D., Sharon, K., Zitrin, A., ... Su, Y. (2019). RELICS: Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey. Astrophysical Journal, 884(1), [85]. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab412b

RELICS : Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey. / Coe, Dan; Salmon, Brett; Bradač, Maruša; Bradley, Larry D.; Sharon, Keren; Zitrin, Adi; Acebron, Ana; Cerny, Catherine; Cibirka, Nathália; Strait, Victoria; Paterno-Mahler, Rachel; Mahler, Guillaume; Avila, Roberto J.; Ogaz, Sara; Huang, Kuang Han; Pelliccia, Debora; Stark, Daniel P.; Mainali, Ramesh; Oesch, Pascal A.; Trenti, Michele; Carrasco, Daniela; Dawson, William A.; Rodney, Steven A.; Strolger, Louis Gregory; Riess, Adam G.; Jones, Christine; Frye, Brenda L.; Czakon, Nicole G.; Umetsu, Keiichi; Vulcani, Benedetta; Graur, Or; Jha, Saurabh W.; Graham, Melissa L.; Molino, Alberto; Nonino, Mario; Hjorth, Jens; Selsing, Jonatan; Christensen, Lise; Kikuchihara, Shotaro; Ouchi, Masami; Oguri, Masamune; Welch, Brian; Lemaux, Brian C.; Andrade-Santos, Felipe; Hoag, Austin T.; Johnson, Traci L.; Peterson, Avery; Past, Matthew; Fox, Carter; Agulli, Irene; Livermore, Rachael; Ryan, Russell E.; Lam, Daniel; Sendra-Server, Irene; Toft, Sune; Lovisari, Lorenzo; Su, Yuanyuan.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 884, No. 1, 85, 10.10.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Coe, D, Salmon, B, Bradač, M, Bradley, LD, Sharon, K, Zitrin, A, Acebron, A, Cerny, C, Cibirka, N, Strait, V, Paterno-Mahler, R, Mahler, G, Avila, RJ, Ogaz, S, Huang, KH, Pelliccia, D, Stark, DP, Mainali, R, Oesch, PA, Trenti, M, Carrasco, D, Dawson, WA, Rodney, SA, Strolger, LG, Riess, AG, Jones, C, Frye, BL, Czakon, NG, Umetsu, K, Vulcani, B, Graur, O, Jha, SW, Graham, ML, Molino, A, Nonino, M, Hjorth, J, Selsing, J, Christensen, L, Kikuchihara, S, Ouchi, M, Oguri, M, Welch, B, Lemaux, BC, Andrade-Santos, F, Hoag, AT, Johnson, TL, Peterson, A, Past, M, Fox, C, Agulli, I, Livermore, R, Ryan, RE, Lam, D, Sendra-Server, I, Toft, S, Lovisari, L & Su, Y 2019, 'RELICS: Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 884, no. 1, 85. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab412b
Coe D, Salmon B, Bradač M, Bradley LD, Sharon K, Zitrin A et al. RELICS: Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey. Astrophysical Journal. 2019 Oct 10;884(1). 85. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab412b
Coe, Dan ; Salmon, Brett ; Bradač, Maruša ; Bradley, Larry D. ; Sharon, Keren ; Zitrin, Adi ; Acebron, Ana ; Cerny, Catherine ; Cibirka, Nathália ; Strait, Victoria ; Paterno-Mahler, Rachel ; Mahler, Guillaume ; Avila, Roberto J. ; Ogaz, Sara ; Huang, Kuang Han ; Pelliccia, Debora ; Stark, Daniel P. ; Mainali, Ramesh ; Oesch, Pascal A. ; Trenti, Michele ; Carrasco, Daniela ; Dawson, William A. ; Rodney, Steven A. ; Strolger, Louis Gregory ; Riess, Adam G. ; Jones, Christine ; Frye, Brenda L. ; Czakon, Nicole G. ; Umetsu, Keiichi ; Vulcani, Benedetta ; Graur, Or ; Jha, Saurabh W. ; Graham, Melissa L. ; Molino, Alberto ; Nonino, Mario ; Hjorth, Jens ; Selsing, Jonatan ; Christensen, Lise ; Kikuchihara, Shotaro ; Ouchi, Masami ; Oguri, Masamune ; Welch, Brian ; Lemaux, Brian C. ; Andrade-Santos, Felipe ; Hoag, Austin T. ; Johnson, Traci L. ; Peterson, Avery ; Past, Matthew ; Fox, Carter ; Agulli, Irene ; Livermore, Rachael ; Ryan, Russell E. ; Lam, Daniel ; Sendra-Server, Irene ; Toft, Sune ; Lovisari, Lorenzo ; Su, Yuanyuan. / RELICS : Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2019 ; Vol. 884, No. 1.
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T2 - Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey

AU - Coe, Dan

AU - Salmon, Brett

AU - Bradač, Maruša

AU - Bradley, Larry D.

AU - Sharon, Keren

AU - Zitrin, Adi

AU - Acebron, Ana

AU - Cerny, Catherine

AU - Cibirka, Nathália

AU - Strait, Victoria

AU - Paterno-Mahler, Rachel

AU - Mahler, Guillaume

AU - Avila, Roberto J.

AU - Ogaz, Sara

AU - Huang, Kuang Han

AU - Pelliccia, Debora

AU - Stark, Daniel P.

AU - Mainali, Ramesh

AU - Oesch, Pascal A.

AU - Trenti, Michele

AU - Carrasco, Daniela

AU - Dawson, William A.

AU - Rodney, Steven A.

AU - Strolger, Louis Gregory

AU - Riess, Adam G.

AU - Jones, Christine

AU - Frye, Brenda L.

AU - Czakon, Nicole G.

AU - Umetsu, Keiichi

AU - Vulcani, Benedetta

AU - Graur, Or

AU - Jha, Saurabh W.

AU - Graham, Melissa L.

AU - Molino, Alberto

AU - Nonino, Mario

AU - Hjorth, Jens

AU - Selsing, Jonatan

AU - Christensen, Lise

AU - Kikuchihara, Shotaro

AU - Ouchi, Masami

AU - Oguri, Masamune

AU - Welch, Brian

AU - Lemaux, Brian C.

AU - Andrade-Santos, Felipe

AU - Hoag, Austin T.

AU - Johnson, Traci L.

AU - Peterson, Avery

AU - Past, Matthew

AU - Fox, Carter

AU - Agulli, Irene

AU - Livermore, Rachael

AU - Ryan, Russell E.

AU - Lam, Daniel

AU - Sendra-Server, Irene

AU - Toft, Sune

AU - Lovisari, Lorenzo

AU - Su, Yuanyuan

PY - 2019/10/10

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AB - Large surveys of galaxy clusters with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and Spitzer, including the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble and the Frontier Fields, have demonstrated the power of strong gravitational lensing to efficiently deliver large samples of high-redshift galaxies. We extend this strategy through a wider, shallower survey named RELICS, the Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey, described here. Our 188-orbit Hubble Treasury Program observed 41 clusters at 0.182 ≤ z ≤ 0.972 with Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and WFC3/IR imaging spanning 0.4-1.7 μm. We selected 21 of the most massive clusters known based on Planck PSZ2 estimates and 20 additional clusters based on observed or inferred lensing strength. RELICS observed 46 WFC3/IR pointings (∼200 arcmin2) each with two orbits divided among four filters (F105W, F125W, F140W, and F160W) and ACS imaging as needed to achieve single-orbit depth in each of three filters (F435W, F606W, and F814W). As previously reported by Salmon et al., we discovered over 300 z ∼ 6-10 candidates, including the brightest z ∼ 6 candidates known, and the most distant spatially resolved lensed arc known at z ∼ 10. Spitzer IRAC imaging (945 hr awarded, plus 100 archival, spanning 3.0-5.0 μm) has crucially enabled us to distinguish z ∼ 10 candidates from z ∼ 2 interlopers. For each cluster, two HST observing epochs were staggered by about a month, enabling us to discover 11 supernovae, including 3 lensed supernovae, which we followed up with 20 orbits from our program. Reduced HST images, catalogs, and lens models are available on MAST, and reduced Spitzer images are available on IRSA.

KW - dark ages, reionization, first stars

KW - dark matter

KW - galaxies: clusters: general

KW - galaxies: high-redshift

KW - gravitational lensing: strong

KW - supernovae: general

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