Reproducibility and expression of skin biomarkers in sun-damaged skin and actinic keratoses

Janine G Einspahr, Min Jian Xu, James A Warneke, Kathylynn Saboda, James Ranger-Moore, Paul Bozzo, Laura Duckett, Rayna Goldman, Po Lin, Julie Buckmeier, David S Alberts

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives: To explore p53 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression and polyamine content as biomarkers in skin cancer chemoprevention trials, we evaluated their expression in early stages of UV-induced squamous cell tumorigenesis. Methods: Biopsies were collected from three groups: 78 subjects with sun damage on forearms, 33 with actinic keratosis (AK) on forearms, and 32 with previous squamous cell carcinoma. Participants with sun damage were randomized to sunscreen or no sunscreen. Results: We found significant differences in p53 and polyamines in forearms from the sun-damaged group (11.5 ± 1.2% for p53, 65.5 ± 1.9 nmol/g for putrescine, and 187.7 ± 3.3 nmol/g for spermidine) compared with the group with sun damage plus AK (20.9 ± 2.3% for p53, P = 0.0001; 81.7 ± 3.9 nmol/g for putrescine, P = 0.0001; 209.4 ± 8.2 nmol/g for spermidine, P < 0.06). PCNA was not different. When lesion histology was considered, there was a stepwise significant increase in p53 in biopsies without characteristics of AK compared with early AK (P = 0.02) and AK (P = 0.0006) and a similar pattern for PCNA with the only significant difference between early AK and AK. There was a stepwise increase in putrescine and spermidine in normal, sun-damaged forearm, forearm from subjects with AK, and the AK lesion itself (P < 0.0001). No significant differences in p53 or polyamines were seen in 3-month biopsies or, as a result of sunscreen use, although PCNA in the sun-damaged group not using sunscreen decreased significantly. Conclusions: p53 expression and polyamines in skin were elevated in early stages of skin tumorigenesis and were not affected by sunscreen, adding validity to their use as biomarkers in skin cancer chemoprevention trials.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1841-1848
Number of pages8
JournalCancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention
Volume15
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2006

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Actinic Keratosis
Solar System
Biomarkers
Sunscreening Agents
Skin
Forearm
Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
Polyamines
Putrescine
Spermidine
Chemoprevention
Skin Neoplasms
Biopsy
Carcinogenesis
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Histology
Epithelial Cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Oncology

Cite this

Reproducibility and expression of skin biomarkers in sun-damaged skin and actinic keratoses. / Einspahr, Janine G; Xu, Min Jian; Warneke, James A; Saboda, Kathylynn; Ranger-Moore, James; Bozzo, Paul; Duckett, Laura; Goldman, Rayna; Lin, Po; Buckmeier, Julie; Alberts, David S.

In: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, Vol. 15, No. 10, 10.2006, p. 1841-1848.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Einspahr, Janine G ; Xu, Min Jian ; Warneke, James A ; Saboda, Kathylynn ; Ranger-Moore, James ; Bozzo, Paul ; Duckett, Laura ; Goldman, Rayna ; Lin, Po ; Buckmeier, Julie ; Alberts, David S. / Reproducibility and expression of skin biomarkers in sun-damaged skin and actinic keratoses. In: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention. 2006 ; Vol. 15, No. 10. pp. 1841-1848.
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abstract = "Objectives: To explore p53 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression and polyamine content as biomarkers in skin cancer chemoprevention trials, we evaluated their expression in early stages of UV-induced squamous cell tumorigenesis. Methods: Biopsies were collected from three groups: 78 subjects with sun damage on forearms, 33 with actinic keratosis (AK) on forearms, and 32 with previous squamous cell carcinoma. Participants with sun damage were randomized to sunscreen or no sunscreen. Results: We found significant differences in p53 and polyamines in forearms from the sun-damaged group (11.5 ± 1.2{\%} for p53, 65.5 ± 1.9 nmol/g for putrescine, and 187.7 ± 3.3 nmol/g for spermidine) compared with the group with sun damage plus AK (20.9 ± 2.3{\%} for p53, P = 0.0001; 81.7 ± 3.9 nmol/g for putrescine, P = 0.0001; 209.4 ± 8.2 nmol/g for spermidine, P < 0.06). PCNA was not different. When lesion histology was considered, there was a stepwise significant increase in p53 in biopsies without characteristics of AK compared with early AK (P = 0.02) and AK (P = 0.0006) and a similar pattern for PCNA with the only significant difference between early AK and AK. There was a stepwise increase in putrescine and spermidine in normal, sun-damaged forearm, forearm from subjects with AK, and the AK lesion itself (P < 0.0001). No significant differences in p53 or polyamines were seen in 3-month biopsies or, as a result of sunscreen use, although PCNA in the sun-damaged group not using sunscreen decreased significantly. Conclusions: p53 expression and polyamines in skin were elevated in early stages of skin tumorigenesis and were not affected by sunscreen, adding validity to their use as biomarkers in skin cancer chemoprevention trials.",
author = "Einspahr, {Janine G} and Xu, {Min Jian} and Warneke, {James A} and Kathylynn Saboda and James Ranger-Moore and Paul Bozzo and Laura Duckett and Rayna Goldman and Po Lin and Julie Buckmeier and Alberts, {David S}",
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T1 - Reproducibility and expression of skin biomarkers in sun-damaged skin and actinic keratoses

AU - Einspahr, Janine G

AU - Xu, Min Jian

AU - Warneke, James A

AU - Saboda, Kathylynn

AU - Ranger-Moore, James

AU - Bozzo, Paul

AU - Duckett, Laura

AU - Goldman, Rayna

AU - Lin, Po

AU - Buckmeier, Julie

AU - Alberts, David S

PY - 2006/10

Y1 - 2006/10

N2 - Objectives: To explore p53 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression and polyamine content as biomarkers in skin cancer chemoprevention trials, we evaluated their expression in early stages of UV-induced squamous cell tumorigenesis. Methods: Biopsies were collected from three groups: 78 subjects with sun damage on forearms, 33 with actinic keratosis (AK) on forearms, and 32 with previous squamous cell carcinoma. Participants with sun damage were randomized to sunscreen or no sunscreen. Results: We found significant differences in p53 and polyamines in forearms from the sun-damaged group (11.5 ± 1.2% for p53, 65.5 ± 1.9 nmol/g for putrescine, and 187.7 ± 3.3 nmol/g for spermidine) compared with the group with sun damage plus AK (20.9 ± 2.3% for p53, P = 0.0001; 81.7 ± 3.9 nmol/g for putrescine, P = 0.0001; 209.4 ± 8.2 nmol/g for spermidine, P < 0.06). PCNA was not different. When lesion histology was considered, there was a stepwise significant increase in p53 in biopsies without characteristics of AK compared with early AK (P = 0.02) and AK (P = 0.0006) and a similar pattern for PCNA with the only significant difference between early AK and AK. There was a stepwise increase in putrescine and spermidine in normal, sun-damaged forearm, forearm from subjects with AK, and the AK lesion itself (P < 0.0001). No significant differences in p53 or polyamines were seen in 3-month biopsies or, as a result of sunscreen use, although PCNA in the sun-damaged group not using sunscreen decreased significantly. Conclusions: p53 expression and polyamines in skin were elevated in early stages of skin tumorigenesis and were not affected by sunscreen, adding validity to their use as biomarkers in skin cancer chemoprevention trials.

AB - Objectives: To explore p53 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression and polyamine content as biomarkers in skin cancer chemoprevention trials, we evaluated their expression in early stages of UV-induced squamous cell tumorigenesis. Methods: Biopsies were collected from three groups: 78 subjects with sun damage on forearms, 33 with actinic keratosis (AK) on forearms, and 32 with previous squamous cell carcinoma. Participants with sun damage were randomized to sunscreen or no sunscreen. Results: We found significant differences in p53 and polyamines in forearms from the sun-damaged group (11.5 ± 1.2% for p53, 65.5 ± 1.9 nmol/g for putrescine, and 187.7 ± 3.3 nmol/g for spermidine) compared with the group with sun damage plus AK (20.9 ± 2.3% for p53, P = 0.0001; 81.7 ± 3.9 nmol/g for putrescine, P = 0.0001; 209.4 ± 8.2 nmol/g for spermidine, P < 0.06). PCNA was not different. When lesion histology was considered, there was a stepwise significant increase in p53 in biopsies without characteristics of AK compared with early AK (P = 0.02) and AK (P = 0.0006) and a similar pattern for PCNA with the only significant difference between early AK and AK. There was a stepwise increase in putrescine and spermidine in normal, sun-damaged forearm, forearm from subjects with AK, and the AK lesion itself (P < 0.0001). No significant differences in p53 or polyamines were seen in 3-month biopsies or, as a result of sunscreen use, although PCNA in the sun-damaged group not using sunscreen decreased significantly. Conclusions: p53 expression and polyamines in skin were elevated in early stages of skin tumorigenesis and were not affected by sunscreen, adding validity to their use as biomarkers in skin cancer chemoprevention trials.

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