We report the absolute binding free energy calculation and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) experiment for ligand binding with the c-MYC G-quadruplex DNA. The unimolecular parallel DNA G-quadruplex formed in nuclease hypersensitivity element III1 of the c-MYC gene promoter regulates the c-MYC transcription and is recognized as an emerging drug target for cancer therapy. Quindoline derivatives have been shown to stabilize the G-quadruplex and inhibit the c-MYC expression in cancer cells. NMR revealed two binding sites located at the 5′ and 3′ termini of the G-quadruplex. Questions about which site is more favored and the basis for the ligand-induced binding site formation remain unresolved. Here, we employ two absolute binding free energy methods, the double decoupling and the potential of mean force methods, to dissect the ligand-binding specificity in the c-MYC G-quadruplex. The calculated absolute binding free energies are in general agreement with the SPR result and suggest that quindoline has a slight preference for the 5′ site. The flanking residues around the two sites undergo significant reorganization as the ligand unbinds, which provides evidence for ligand-induced binding pocket formation. The results help interpret experimental data and inform rational design of small molecules targeting the c-MYC G-quadruplex.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Materials Chemistry