BACKGROUND: Blood transfusion has been shown to be associated with adverse long-term and short-term outcomes. We sought to evaluate the preoperative risk factors associated with blood transfusion and its effects on postoperative outcomes after adrenalectomy.
METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 4735 adrenalectomies (3664 laparoscopic and 1071 open) from 2005-2012 using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Data on preoperative risk factors and postoperative morbidity and mortality were evaluated.
RESULTS: Median age and body mass index were 54 y and 29.3 kg/m(2), respectively. Most patients were female (60.0%). Of the total, 60.6% patients had American Society of Anesthesiologists score ≥3. On multivariate analysis, increasing age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.02, P <0.001), open adrenalectomy (OR = 14.0, P <0.001), preoperative hematocrit 150 min (OR: 3.69, P <0.001) were associated with an increased need for intraoperative blood transfusions. The need for intraoperative blood transfusions was an independent predictor of postoperative complications including mortality (OR = 12.7, P <0.001), overall morbidity (OR = 3.2, P <0.001), serious morbidity (OR = 3.8, P <0.001), wound complication (OR = 2.1, P = 0.006), cardiopulmonary complication (OR = 3.6, P <0.001), septic complication (OR = 2.5, P = 0.007), reoperation (OR = 3.6, P <0.001), and prolonged length of stay (OR = 4.3, P <0.001). There was an independent and incremental increase (10%-20%) in the risk of morbidity and mortality with each unit of blood transfused (P <0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: Age, open surgery, preoperative anemia, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, and prolonged operative time are associated with an increased need for blood transfusions in laparoscopic and open adrenalectomy. Intraoperative transfusion was independently and incrementally associated with significant morbidity and mortality after laparoscopic and open adrenalectomy.
- Blood transfusion
- Endocrine surgery
- Surgical outcomes
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