Risk of infection from Legionella associated with spray irrigation of reclaimed water

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Scopus citations


Legionella pneumophila has been detected in reclaimed water used for spray irrigation of turfgrass in public parks and golf courses. This study determined the risks of infection from exposure to various levels of Legionella in reclaimed waters considering: the method of spray application; and the duration and frequency of exposure. Evaluation of these factors resulted in a risk of infection greater than 1:10,000 for several scenarios when the number of Legionella in the reclaimed water exceeded 1000 colony-forming units (CFU) per ml. Most current guidelines for control of Legionella in distribution systems recommend that increased monitoring or remedial action be taken when Legionella levels exceed 1000 to 10,000 CFU/ml. Based upon our risk assessment, these guidelines seem appropriate for reclaimed water systems where spray irrigation is practiced.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)101-107
Number of pages7
JournalWater Research
StatePublished - Aug 1 2018



  • Legionella
  • Reclaimed water
  • Risk assessment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecological Modeling
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution

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