Background: There remains a serious need to prevent the progression of invasive prostate cancer (PCa). We previously showed that secreted extracellular nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (eNAMPT) is a multifunctional innate immunity regulator via TLR4 ligation which has been implicated in PCa progression. Here we investigate the role of eNAMPT as a diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target in the progression of PCa. Methods: Tumor NAMPT expression and plasma eNAMPT level were evaluated in human subjects with various PCa tumor stages and high risk subjects followed-up clinically for PCa. The genetic regulation of NAMPT expression in PCa cells and the role of eNAMPT in PCa invasion were investigated utilizing in vitro and in vivo models. Findings: Marked NAMPT expression was detected in human extraprostatic-invasive PCa tissues compared to minimal expression of organ-confined PCa. Plasma eNAMPT levels were significantly elevated in PCa subjects compared to male controls, and significantly greater in subjects with extraprostatic-invasive PCa compared to subjects with organ-confined PCa. Plasma eNAMPT levels showed significant predictive value for diagnosing PCa. NAMPT expression and eNAMPT secretion were highly upregulated in human PCa cells in response to hypoxia-inducible factors and EGF. In vitro cell culture and in vivo preclinical mouse model studies confirmed eNAMPT-mediated enhancement of PCa invasiveness into muscle tissues and dramatic attenuation of PCa invasion by weekly treatment with an eNAMPT-neutralizing polyclonal antibody. Interpretation: This study suggests that eNAMPT is a potential biomarker for PCa, especially invasive PCa. Neutralization of eNAMPT may be an effective therapeutic approach to prevent PCa invasion and progression.
- Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase
- Prostate cancer
- Targeted therapy
- Tumor progression
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)