2,3,5-tris(Glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone, a potent nephrotoxic and nephrocarcinogenic metabolite of benzene and hydroquinone, generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing DNA strand breaks and the subsequent activation of DNA repair enzymes, including poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1. Under robust oxidative DNA damage, PARP-1 is hyperactivated, resulting in the depletion of NAD+ and ATP with accompanying elevations in intracellular calcium concentrations (iCa2+), and ultimately necrotic cell death. The role of Ca2+ during PARP-dependent necrotic cell death remains unclear. We therefore sought to determine the relationship between Ca2+ and PARP-1 during ROS-induced necrotic cell death in human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (HK-2). Our experiments suggest that store-operated Ca2+ channel (SOC) entry contributes to the coupling of PARP-1 activation to increases in iCa2+ during ROS-induced cell death. Poly(ADP-ribose)glycohydrolase (PARG), which catalyzes the degradation of PARs to yield free ADP-ribose (ADPR), is known to activate Ca2+ channels such as TRPM2. However, siRNA knockdown of PARG did not restore cell viability, indicating that free ADPR is not responsible for SOC activation in HK-2 cells. The data indicate that PARP-1 and iCa2+ are coupled through activation of SOC mediated Ca2+ entry in an apparently ADPR-independent fashion; alternative PAR-mediated signaling likely contributes to PARP-dependent necrotic cell death, perhaps via PAR-mediated signaling proteins that regulate iCa2+ homeostasis.
- HK-2 cells
- Store-operated calcium channel entry
ASJC Scopus subject areas