“Asleep” deep brain stimulation using general anesthesia and intraoperative MR imaging guidance is considered “off-label” use by current FDA guidelines but is widely used in neurosurgical practice, and excellent safety has been demonstrated using first-generation, omnidirectional electrodes. Safety data for second-generation, directional electrodes in the interventional MR imaging environment have not yet been published. Herein, we report 34 cases of asleep deep brain stimulation using second-generation, directional electrodes in an interventional MR imaging suite at a single institution. Procedural complications and imaging data are described. All patients underwent postoperative MR imaging with fully implanted (“internalized”) electrodes after scalp closure; 4 patients also underwent MR imaging with “externalized” electrodes before scalp closure. No MR imaging-related complications were observed, and procedural complication rates were comparable to prior series. This suggests that the use of second-generation, directional electrodes in the interventional MR imaging environment appears to be safe when following manufacturer-published imaging guidelines.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Clinical Neurology