Purpose: Recurrent carotid stenosis after carotid endarterectomy has been extensively reported. The occurrence, however, of another ipsilateral restenosis that requires a third carotid operation is rare. The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible risk factors and the most efficacious management of the patient with 'secondary' recurrent carotid stenosis. Method: A survey of the Southern Association for Vascular Surgery was performed, and 31 patients who had had surgery for secondary recurrent carotid stenosis were identified. Results: The mean interval between the recurrent stenosis operation and secondary recurrent carotid stenosis was 39.8 months (range, 9 to 83 months). At the third operation, 21 patients underwent carotid patch angioplasty and 10 underwent carotid resection with an interposition saphenous vein graft. No postoperative strokes or deaths occurred; three patients (10%) had a peripheral nerve injury. Nine early (<24 mo) secondary recurrent carotid stenoses occurred, and these patients underwent patch angioplasty. Twenty-three female, cigarette-smoking patients and 20 patients with elevated lipid levels had early restenosis and were identified as being at high risk for the development of another stenosis. A fourth significant stenosis developed in five of these high-risk patients who had saphenous vein patch angioplasty at their third carotid operation; eight other high-risk patients had carotid resection with an interposition saphenous vein graft, and no other stenosis developed. Conclusion: Patients who have secondary recurrent carotid stenoses can safely undergo a third carotid operation. Female habitual smokers with elevated lipid levels and an early restenosis appear to be at high risk of secondary recurrent carotid stenoses. When surgery is necessary, carotid resection with an interposition saphenous vein graft appears more durable than patch angioplasty.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine