Segmented lateral dyke growth in a rifting event at Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland

Freysteinn Sigmundsson, Andrew Hooper, Sigrún Hreinsdóttir, Kristín S. Vogfjörd, Benedikt G. Ófeigsson, Elías Rafn Heimisson, Stéphanie Dumont, Michelle Parks, Karsten Spaans, Gunnar B. Gudmundsson, Vincent Drouin, Thóra Árnadóttir, Kristín Jónsdóttir, Magnús T. Gudmundsson, Thórdís Högnadóttir, Hildur María Fridriksdóttir, Martin Hensch, Páll Einarsson, Eyjólfur Magnússon, Sergey Samsonov & 17 others Bryndís Brandsdóttir, Robert S. White, Thorbjörg Ágústsdóttir, Tim Greenfield, Robert G. Green, Ásta Rut Hjartardóttir, Rikke Pedersen, Richard A Bennett, Halldór Geirsson, Peter C. la Femina, Helgi Björnsson, Finnur Pálsson, Erik Sturkell, Christopher J. Bean, Martin Möllhoff, Aoife K. Braiden, Eva P.S. Eibl

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

201 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Crust at many divergent plate boundaries forms primarily by the injection of vertical sheet-like dykes, some tens of kilometres long. Previous models of rifting events indicate either lateral dyke growth away from a feeding source, with propagation rates decreasing as the dyke lengthens, or magma flowing vertically into dykes from an underlying source, with the role of topography on the evolution of lateral dykes not clear. Here we show how a recent segmented dyke intrusion in the Bárðarbunga volcanic system grew laterally for more than 45 kilometres at a variable rate, with topography influencing the direction of propagation. Barriers at the ends of each segment were overcome by the build-up of pressure in the dyke end; then a new segment formed and dyke lengthening temporarily peaked. The dyke evolution, which occurred primarily over 14 days, was revealed by propagating seismicity, ground deformation mapped by Global Positioning System (GPS), interferometric analysis of satellite radar images (InSAR), and graben formation. The strike of the dyke segments varies from an initially radial direction away from the Bárðarbunga caldera, towards alignment with that expected from regional stress at the distal end. A model minimizing the combined strain and gravitational potential energy explains the propagation path. Dyke opening and seismicity focused at the most distal segment at any given time, and were simultaneous with magma source deflation and slow collapse at the Bárðarbunga caldera, accompanied by a series of magnitude M > 5 earthquakes. Dyke growth was slowed down by an effusive fissure eruption near the end of the dyke. Lateral dyke growth with segment barrier breaking by pressure build-up in the dyke distal end explains how focused upwelling of magma under central volcanoes is effectively redistributed over long distances to create new upper crust at divergent plate boundaries.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalNature
Volume517
Issue number7533
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 15 2014
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Iceland
Growth
Radar
Pressure
Geographic Information Systems
Earthquakes
Injections
Direction compound

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • General

Cite this

Sigmundsson, F., Hooper, A., Hreinsdóttir, S., Vogfjörd, K. S., Ófeigsson, B. G., Heimisson, E. R., ... Eibl, E. P. S. (2014). Segmented lateral dyke growth in a rifting event at Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland. Nature, 517(7533). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14111

Segmented lateral dyke growth in a rifting event at Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland. / Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Hooper, Andrew; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Vogfjörd, Kristín S.; Ófeigsson, Benedikt G.; Heimisson, Elías Rafn; Dumont, Stéphanie; Parks, Michelle; Spaans, Karsten; Gudmundsson, Gunnar B.; Drouin, Vincent; Árnadóttir, Thóra; Jónsdóttir, Kristín; Gudmundsson, Magnús T.; Högnadóttir, Thórdís; Fridriksdóttir, Hildur María; Hensch, Martin; Einarsson, Páll; Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Samsonov, Sergey; Brandsdóttir, Bryndís; White, Robert S.; Ágústsdóttir, Thorbjörg; Greenfield, Tim; Green, Robert G.; Hjartardóttir, Ásta Rut; Pedersen, Rikke; Bennett, Richard A; Geirsson, Halldór; la Femina, Peter C.; Björnsson, Helgi; Pálsson, Finnur; Sturkell, Erik; Bean, Christopher J.; Möllhoff, Martin; Braiden, Aoife K.; Eibl, Eva P.S.

In: Nature, Vol. 517, No. 7533, 15.12.2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Sigmundsson, F, Hooper, A, Hreinsdóttir, S, Vogfjörd, KS, Ófeigsson, BG, Heimisson, ER, Dumont, S, Parks, M, Spaans, K, Gudmundsson, GB, Drouin, V, Árnadóttir, T, Jónsdóttir, K, Gudmundsson, MT, Högnadóttir, T, Fridriksdóttir, HM, Hensch, M, Einarsson, P, Magnússon, E, Samsonov, S, Brandsdóttir, B, White, RS, Ágústsdóttir, T, Greenfield, T, Green, RG, Hjartardóttir, ÁR, Pedersen, R, Bennett, RA, Geirsson, H, la Femina, PC, Björnsson, H, Pálsson, F, Sturkell, E, Bean, CJ, Möllhoff, M, Braiden, AK & Eibl, EPS 2014, 'Segmented lateral dyke growth in a rifting event at Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland', Nature, vol. 517, no. 7533. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14111
Sigmundsson F, Hooper A, Hreinsdóttir S, Vogfjörd KS, Ófeigsson BG, Heimisson ER et al. Segmented lateral dyke growth in a rifting event at Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland. Nature. 2014 Dec 15;517(7533). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14111
Sigmundsson, Freysteinn ; Hooper, Andrew ; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún ; Vogfjörd, Kristín S. ; Ófeigsson, Benedikt G. ; Heimisson, Elías Rafn ; Dumont, Stéphanie ; Parks, Michelle ; Spaans, Karsten ; Gudmundsson, Gunnar B. ; Drouin, Vincent ; Árnadóttir, Thóra ; Jónsdóttir, Kristín ; Gudmundsson, Magnús T. ; Högnadóttir, Thórdís ; Fridriksdóttir, Hildur María ; Hensch, Martin ; Einarsson, Páll ; Magnússon, Eyjólfur ; Samsonov, Sergey ; Brandsdóttir, Bryndís ; White, Robert S. ; Ágústsdóttir, Thorbjörg ; Greenfield, Tim ; Green, Robert G. ; Hjartardóttir, Ásta Rut ; Pedersen, Rikke ; Bennett, Richard A ; Geirsson, Halldór ; la Femina, Peter C. ; Björnsson, Helgi ; Pálsson, Finnur ; Sturkell, Erik ; Bean, Christopher J. ; Möllhoff, Martin ; Braiden, Aoife K. ; Eibl, Eva P.S. / Segmented lateral dyke growth in a rifting event at Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland. In: Nature. 2014 ; Vol. 517, No. 7533.
@article{85df967a4ae54370bd7fed1e10ce0d7b,
title = "Segmented lateral dyke growth in a rifting event at B{\'a}r{\dh}arbunga volcanic system, Iceland",
abstract = "Crust at many divergent plate boundaries forms primarily by the injection of vertical sheet-like dykes, some tens of kilometres long. Previous models of rifting events indicate either lateral dyke growth away from a feeding source, with propagation rates decreasing as the dyke lengthens, or magma flowing vertically into dykes from an underlying source, with the role of topography on the evolution of lateral dykes not clear. Here we show how a recent segmented dyke intrusion in the B{\'a}r{\dh}arbunga volcanic system grew laterally for more than 45 kilometres at a variable rate, with topography influencing the direction of propagation. Barriers at the ends of each segment were overcome by the build-up of pressure in the dyke end; then a new segment formed and dyke lengthening temporarily peaked. The dyke evolution, which occurred primarily over 14 days, was revealed by propagating seismicity, ground deformation mapped by Global Positioning System (GPS), interferometric analysis of satellite radar images (InSAR), and graben formation. The strike of the dyke segments varies from an initially radial direction away from the B{\'a}r{\dh}arbunga caldera, towards alignment with that expected from regional stress at the distal end. A model minimizing the combined strain and gravitational potential energy explains the propagation path. Dyke opening and seismicity focused at the most distal segment at any given time, and were simultaneous with magma source deflation and slow collapse at the B{\'a}r{\dh}arbunga caldera, accompanied by a series of magnitude M > 5 earthquakes. Dyke growth was slowed down by an effusive fissure eruption near the end of the dyke. Lateral dyke growth with segment barrier breaking by pressure build-up in the dyke distal end explains how focused upwelling of magma under central volcanoes is effectively redistributed over long distances to create new upper crust at divergent plate boundaries.",
author = "Freysteinn Sigmundsson and Andrew Hooper and Sigr{\'u}n Hreinsd{\'o}ttir and Vogfj{\"o}rd, {Krist{\'i}n S.} and {\'O}feigsson, {Benedikt G.} and Heimisson, {El{\'i}as Rafn} and St{\'e}phanie Dumont and Michelle Parks and Karsten Spaans and Gudmundsson, {Gunnar B.} and Vincent Drouin and Th{\'o}ra {\'A}rnad{\'o}ttir and Krist{\'i}n J{\'o}nsd{\'o}ttir and Gudmundsson, {Magn{\'u}s T.} and Th{\'o}rd{\'i}s H{\"o}gnad{\'o}ttir and Fridriksd{\'o}ttir, {Hildur Mar{\'i}a} and Martin Hensch and P{\'a}ll Einarsson and Eyj{\'o}lfur Magn{\'u}sson and Sergey Samsonov and Brynd{\'i}s Brandsd{\'o}ttir and White, {Robert S.} and Thorbj{\"o}rg {\'A}g{\'u}stsd{\'o}ttir and Tim Greenfield and Green, {Robert G.} and Hjartard{\'o}ttir, {{\'A}sta Rut} and Rikke Pedersen and Bennett, {Richard A} and Halld{\'o}r Geirsson and {la Femina}, {Peter C.} and Helgi Bj{\"o}rnsson and Finnur P{\'a}lsson and Erik Sturkell and Bean, {Christopher J.} and Martin M{\"o}llhoff and Braiden, {Aoife K.} and Eibl, {Eva P.S.}",
year = "2014",
month = "12",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1038/nature14111",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "517",
journal = "Nature",
issn = "0028-0836",
publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
number = "7533",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Segmented lateral dyke growth in a rifting event at Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland

AU - Sigmundsson, Freysteinn

AU - Hooper, Andrew

AU - Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún

AU - Vogfjörd, Kristín S.

AU - Ófeigsson, Benedikt G.

AU - Heimisson, Elías Rafn

AU - Dumont, Stéphanie

AU - Parks, Michelle

AU - Spaans, Karsten

AU - Gudmundsson, Gunnar B.

AU - Drouin, Vincent

AU - Árnadóttir, Thóra

AU - Jónsdóttir, Kristín

AU - Gudmundsson, Magnús T.

AU - Högnadóttir, Thórdís

AU - Fridriksdóttir, Hildur María

AU - Hensch, Martin

AU - Einarsson, Páll

AU - Magnússon, Eyjólfur

AU - Samsonov, Sergey

AU - Brandsdóttir, Bryndís

AU - White, Robert S.

AU - Ágústsdóttir, Thorbjörg

AU - Greenfield, Tim

AU - Green, Robert G.

AU - Hjartardóttir, Ásta Rut

AU - Pedersen, Rikke

AU - Bennett, Richard A

AU - Geirsson, Halldór

AU - la Femina, Peter C.

AU - Björnsson, Helgi

AU - Pálsson, Finnur

AU - Sturkell, Erik

AU - Bean, Christopher J.

AU - Möllhoff, Martin

AU - Braiden, Aoife K.

AU - Eibl, Eva P.S.

PY - 2014/12/15

Y1 - 2014/12/15

N2 - Crust at many divergent plate boundaries forms primarily by the injection of vertical sheet-like dykes, some tens of kilometres long. Previous models of rifting events indicate either lateral dyke growth away from a feeding source, with propagation rates decreasing as the dyke lengthens, or magma flowing vertically into dykes from an underlying source, with the role of topography on the evolution of lateral dykes not clear. Here we show how a recent segmented dyke intrusion in the Bárðarbunga volcanic system grew laterally for more than 45 kilometres at a variable rate, with topography influencing the direction of propagation. Barriers at the ends of each segment were overcome by the build-up of pressure in the dyke end; then a new segment formed and dyke lengthening temporarily peaked. The dyke evolution, which occurred primarily over 14 days, was revealed by propagating seismicity, ground deformation mapped by Global Positioning System (GPS), interferometric analysis of satellite radar images (InSAR), and graben formation. The strike of the dyke segments varies from an initially radial direction away from the Bárðarbunga caldera, towards alignment with that expected from regional stress at the distal end. A model minimizing the combined strain and gravitational potential energy explains the propagation path. Dyke opening and seismicity focused at the most distal segment at any given time, and were simultaneous with magma source deflation and slow collapse at the Bárðarbunga caldera, accompanied by a series of magnitude M > 5 earthquakes. Dyke growth was slowed down by an effusive fissure eruption near the end of the dyke. Lateral dyke growth with segment barrier breaking by pressure build-up in the dyke distal end explains how focused upwelling of magma under central volcanoes is effectively redistributed over long distances to create new upper crust at divergent plate boundaries.

AB - Crust at many divergent plate boundaries forms primarily by the injection of vertical sheet-like dykes, some tens of kilometres long. Previous models of rifting events indicate either lateral dyke growth away from a feeding source, with propagation rates decreasing as the dyke lengthens, or magma flowing vertically into dykes from an underlying source, with the role of topography on the evolution of lateral dykes not clear. Here we show how a recent segmented dyke intrusion in the Bárðarbunga volcanic system grew laterally for more than 45 kilometres at a variable rate, with topography influencing the direction of propagation. Barriers at the ends of each segment were overcome by the build-up of pressure in the dyke end; then a new segment formed and dyke lengthening temporarily peaked. The dyke evolution, which occurred primarily over 14 days, was revealed by propagating seismicity, ground deformation mapped by Global Positioning System (GPS), interferometric analysis of satellite radar images (InSAR), and graben formation. The strike of the dyke segments varies from an initially radial direction away from the Bárðarbunga caldera, towards alignment with that expected from regional stress at the distal end. A model minimizing the combined strain and gravitational potential energy explains the propagation path. Dyke opening and seismicity focused at the most distal segment at any given time, and were simultaneous with magma source deflation and slow collapse at the Bárðarbunga caldera, accompanied by a series of magnitude M > 5 earthquakes. Dyke growth was slowed down by an effusive fissure eruption near the end of the dyke. Lateral dyke growth with segment barrier breaking by pressure build-up in the dyke distal end explains how focused upwelling of magma under central volcanoes is effectively redistributed over long distances to create new upper crust at divergent plate boundaries.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84941146487&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84941146487&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1038/nature14111

DO - 10.1038/nature14111

M3 - Article

VL - 517

JO - Nature

JF - Nature

SN - 0028-0836

IS - 7533

ER -