Background: The bidirectional Glenn (BDG) procedure is most commonly used as staged palliation for complex cyanotic congenital heart defects. The benefits of a BDG procedure without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) remain mixed within reported series. The purpose of this study was to compare short- and long-term outcomes for performance of a BDG procedure with and without the use of CPB. Methods: From 2001 to 2010, 106 patients underwent a BDG procedure. Patients were stratified into CPB (n = 72; age = 202 days) and non-CPB (n = 34; age = 182 days) groups. Primary outcomes included operative mortality and postoperative complications as well as differences in long-term Kaplan-Meier survival. Results: Median follow-up was 30 months. Preoperative patient characteristics were similar among patients despite the use of CPB. The most frequent indications for a BDG procedure were hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) (35.8%) and tricuspid atresia (TA) (17.9%). Median perfusion time was 73 minutes for CPB patients. Overall mortality was 0.9% and no deaths occurred among non-CPB patients (0.0% versus 1.4%; p > 0.99). Similarly, no significant differences existed between non-CPB patients and CPB patients with respect to overall complication rates (11.8% versus 18.1%; p = 0.57) or postoperative length of stay (7.0 [5.0-12.0] versus 7.0 [5.0-11.0] days; p = 0.38). Furthermore, 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival was high and similar between groups. Conclusions: The BDG procedure can be performed with no significant differences in operative mortality, morbidity, or use of resources, with or without CPB support. Long-term survival after the BDG procedure is high with both strategies. Performance of an off-pump BDG procedure should be considered a safe alternative to the conventional use of CPB for appropriately selected patients.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine