Objective: The authors determined whether the use of kidney allografts with multiple renal arteries adversely affects post transplant graft and patient outcome or increases the incidence of vascular and urologic complications. Background: Kidney grafts with multiple renal arteries have been associated with an increased incidence of early vascular and urologic complications. Kidney transplants with single versus multiple renal arteries have not been compared in regard to long-term graft and patient outcome or post-transplant incidence of hypertension, acute tubular necrosis, rejection, and late vascular and urologic complications. Methods: We analyzed 998 adult kidney transplants done from December 1, 1985 through June 30, 1993, in which only the recipient's external or internal iliac artery was used for anastomosis. We divided the study population into 3 groups: Group A-1 renal artery, 1 arterial anastomosis (n = 835), Group B - >1 renal artery, 1 arterial anastomosis (n = 112), Group C - >1 renal artery, >1 arterial anastomosis (n = 51). We compared the incidence of post-transplant hypertension, acute tubular necrosis, acute rejection, and vascular and urologic complications; mean creatinine levels at 1,3, and 5 years posttransplant; and patient and graft survival. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done to identify risk factors for vascular complications. Results: We found no significant differences among the three groups for the following variables; post-transplant hypertension, acute tubular necrosis, acute rejection, creatinine levels, early vascular and urologic complications, and graft and patient survival. In kidneys with single arteries, the presence (vs. absence) of an aortic patch and the type of the arterial anastomosis (end-to-end to the hypogastric vs. end to side to the external iliac artery) did not have an impact on the incidence of early or late vascular complications. In kidneys with multiple arteries, only the rate of late renal artery stenosis was higher, the rate of early vascular and urologic complications was not different. Our multivariate analysis identified acute tubular necrosis as a risk factor for renal artery and vein thrombosis; graft placement on the left side for arterial thrombosis; and preservation time ≥ 24 hours and multiple renal arteries for renal artery stenosis. Conclusions: Results of kidney transplants using allografts with multiple versus single arteries are similar.
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