Short-term in vitro inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 potentiates insulin signaling in type I skeletal muscle of Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats

Erik J Henriksen, Mary K. Teachey

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Abstract

Overactivity of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is associated with insulin resistance of skeletal muscle glucose transport in prediabetic and type 2 diabetic rodent models. However, limited information is available concerning the potential molecular mechanisms underlying the role GSK-3 plays in the etiology of insulin resistance in the male Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rat, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therefore, we assessed the functionality of proximal and distal insulin signaling elements in isolated type I (slow-twitch oxidative) soleus muscles of ZDF rats after in vitro exposure to a selective GSK-3 inhibitor (1 μmol/L CT98014, Ki <10 nmol/L for GSK-3α and GSK-3β). Moreover, Ser307 phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), which has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance, was also determined in the absence or presence of this GSK-3 inhibitor. Maximally insulin-stimulated (5 mU/mL) GSK-3β serine phosphorylation was significantly less (35%, P < .05) in soleus muscle of ZDF rats compared with insulin-sensitive lean Zucker rats, indicating GSK-3 overactivity. In the absence of insulin, no effects of GSK-3 inhibition were detected. GSK-3 inhibition led to significant enhancement (28%) of insulin-stimulated glucose transport activity that was associated with significant up-regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of IR (52%) and IRS-1 (50%), and with enhanced Akt Ser473 phosphorylation (48%) and GSK-3β Ser9 phosphorylation (36%). Moreover, the selective GSK-3 inhibitor induced a significant reduction in the phosphorylation of IRS-1 Ser307 (26%) and c-jun N-terminal kinases 1 and 2 (31%), a mediator of IRS-1 Ser307 phosphorylation. These results indicate that selective inhibition of GSK-3 activity in type I skeletal muscle from overtly diabetic ZDF rats enhances IRS-1-dependent insulin signaling, possibly by a decrease in c-jun N-terminal kinase activation and a diminution of the deleterious effects of IRS-1 Ser307 phosphorylation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)931-938
Number of pages8
JournalMetabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Volume56
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2007

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Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3
Skeletal Muscle
Insulin
Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins
Phosphorylation
Insulin Resistance
In Vitro Techniques
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 9
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8
Zucker Rats
Glucose
JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Serine
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Tyrosine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Cite this

@article{07b46a344f9747bf9a7b84b444a321d4,
title = "Short-term in vitro inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 potentiates insulin signaling in type I skeletal muscle of Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats",
abstract = "Overactivity of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is associated with insulin resistance of skeletal muscle glucose transport in prediabetic and type 2 diabetic rodent models. However, limited information is available concerning the potential molecular mechanisms underlying the role GSK-3 plays in the etiology of insulin resistance in the male Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rat, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therefore, we assessed the functionality of proximal and distal insulin signaling elements in isolated type I (slow-twitch oxidative) soleus muscles of ZDF rats after in vitro exposure to a selective GSK-3 inhibitor (1 μmol/L CT98014, Ki <10 nmol/L for GSK-3α and GSK-3β). Moreover, Ser307 phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), which has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance, was also determined in the absence or presence of this GSK-3 inhibitor. Maximally insulin-stimulated (5 mU/mL) GSK-3β serine phosphorylation was significantly less (35{\%}, P < .05) in soleus muscle of ZDF rats compared with insulin-sensitive lean Zucker rats, indicating GSK-3 overactivity. In the absence of insulin, no effects of GSK-3 inhibition were detected. GSK-3 inhibition led to significant enhancement (28{\%}) of insulin-stimulated glucose transport activity that was associated with significant up-regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of IR (52{\%}) and IRS-1 (50{\%}), and with enhanced Akt Ser473 phosphorylation (48{\%}) and GSK-3β Ser9 phosphorylation (36{\%}). Moreover, the selective GSK-3 inhibitor induced a significant reduction in the phosphorylation of IRS-1 Ser307 (26{\%}) and c-jun N-terminal kinases 1 and 2 (31{\%}), a mediator of IRS-1 Ser307 phosphorylation. These results indicate that selective inhibition of GSK-3 activity in type I skeletal muscle from overtly diabetic ZDF rats enhances IRS-1-dependent insulin signaling, possibly by a decrease in c-jun N-terminal kinase activation and a diminution of the deleterious effects of IRS-1 Ser307 phosphorylation.",
author = "Henriksen, {Erik J} and Teachey, {Mary K.}",
year = "2007",
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doi = "10.1016/j.metabol.2007.03.002",
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T1 - Short-term in vitro inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 potentiates insulin signaling in type I skeletal muscle of Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats

AU - Henriksen, Erik J

AU - Teachey, Mary K.

PY - 2007/7

Y1 - 2007/7

N2 - Overactivity of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is associated with insulin resistance of skeletal muscle glucose transport in prediabetic and type 2 diabetic rodent models. However, limited information is available concerning the potential molecular mechanisms underlying the role GSK-3 plays in the etiology of insulin resistance in the male Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rat, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therefore, we assessed the functionality of proximal and distal insulin signaling elements in isolated type I (slow-twitch oxidative) soleus muscles of ZDF rats after in vitro exposure to a selective GSK-3 inhibitor (1 μmol/L CT98014, Ki <10 nmol/L for GSK-3α and GSK-3β). Moreover, Ser307 phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), which has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance, was also determined in the absence or presence of this GSK-3 inhibitor. Maximally insulin-stimulated (5 mU/mL) GSK-3β serine phosphorylation was significantly less (35%, P < .05) in soleus muscle of ZDF rats compared with insulin-sensitive lean Zucker rats, indicating GSK-3 overactivity. In the absence of insulin, no effects of GSK-3 inhibition were detected. GSK-3 inhibition led to significant enhancement (28%) of insulin-stimulated glucose transport activity that was associated with significant up-regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of IR (52%) and IRS-1 (50%), and with enhanced Akt Ser473 phosphorylation (48%) and GSK-3β Ser9 phosphorylation (36%). Moreover, the selective GSK-3 inhibitor induced a significant reduction in the phosphorylation of IRS-1 Ser307 (26%) and c-jun N-terminal kinases 1 and 2 (31%), a mediator of IRS-1 Ser307 phosphorylation. These results indicate that selective inhibition of GSK-3 activity in type I skeletal muscle from overtly diabetic ZDF rats enhances IRS-1-dependent insulin signaling, possibly by a decrease in c-jun N-terminal kinase activation and a diminution of the deleterious effects of IRS-1 Ser307 phosphorylation.

AB - Overactivity of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is associated with insulin resistance of skeletal muscle glucose transport in prediabetic and type 2 diabetic rodent models. However, limited information is available concerning the potential molecular mechanisms underlying the role GSK-3 plays in the etiology of insulin resistance in the male Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rat, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therefore, we assessed the functionality of proximal and distal insulin signaling elements in isolated type I (slow-twitch oxidative) soleus muscles of ZDF rats after in vitro exposure to a selective GSK-3 inhibitor (1 μmol/L CT98014, Ki <10 nmol/L for GSK-3α and GSK-3β). Moreover, Ser307 phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), which has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance, was also determined in the absence or presence of this GSK-3 inhibitor. Maximally insulin-stimulated (5 mU/mL) GSK-3β serine phosphorylation was significantly less (35%, P < .05) in soleus muscle of ZDF rats compared with insulin-sensitive lean Zucker rats, indicating GSK-3 overactivity. In the absence of insulin, no effects of GSK-3 inhibition were detected. GSK-3 inhibition led to significant enhancement (28%) of insulin-stimulated glucose transport activity that was associated with significant up-regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of IR (52%) and IRS-1 (50%), and with enhanced Akt Ser473 phosphorylation (48%) and GSK-3β Ser9 phosphorylation (36%). Moreover, the selective GSK-3 inhibitor induced a significant reduction in the phosphorylation of IRS-1 Ser307 (26%) and c-jun N-terminal kinases 1 and 2 (31%), a mediator of IRS-1 Ser307 phosphorylation. These results indicate that selective inhibition of GSK-3 activity in type I skeletal muscle from overtly diabetic ZDF rats enhances IRS-1-dependent insulin signaling, possibly by a decrease in c-jun N-terminal kinase activation and a diminution of the deleterious effects of IRS-1 Ser307 phosphorylation.

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