Single concentration tests show synergism among Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis toxins against the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles albimanus

María Teresa Fernández-Luna, Bruce E. Tabashnik, Humberto Lanz-Mendoza, Alejandra Bravo, Mario Soberón, Juan Miranda-Ríos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

31 Scopus citations


Bioassays of insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis with larvae of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles albimanus showed that the cytolytic protein Cyt1Aa was not toxic alone, but it increased the toxicity of the crystalline proteins Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa. Synergism also occurred between Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa toxins. Whereas many previous analyses of synergism have been based on a series of toxin concentrations leading to comparisons between expected and observed values for the concentration killing 50% of insects tested (LC50), we describe and apply a method here that enables testing for synergism based on single concentrations of toxins.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)231-233
Number of pages3
JournalJournal of Invertebrate Pathology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 1 2010



  • Anopheles albimanus
  • Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis
  • Cry11Aa
  • Cry4Ba
  • Cyt1Aa
  • Malaria
  • Synergism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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