Diagnosis of hematological cancer requires complete white blood cell count, followed by flow cytometry with multiple markers, and cytology. It requires substantial time and specialized training. A dual-layer paper microfluidic chip was developed as a quicker, low-cost, and field-deployable alternative to detect ROR1+ (receptor tyrosine-like orphan receptor one) cancer cells from the undiluted and untreated buffy coat blood samples. The first capture layer consisted of a GF/D glass fiber substrate, preloaded with cancer specific anti-ROR1 conjugated fluorescent particles to its center for cancer cell capture and direct smartphone fluorescence imaging. The second flow layer was comprised of a grade 1 cellulose chromatography paper with wax-printed four channels for wicking and capillary flow-based detection. The flow velocity was used as measure of antigen concentration in the buffy coat sample. In this manner, intact cells and their antigens were separated and independently analyzed by both imaging and flow velocity analyses. A custom-made smartphone-based fluorescence microscope and automated image processing and particle counter software were developed to enumerate particles on paper, with the limit of detection of 1 cell/μL. Flow velocity analysis showed even greater sensitivity, with the limit of detection of 0.1 cells/μL in the first 6 s of assay. Comparison with capillary flow model revealed great alignment with experimental data and greater correlation to viscosity than interfacial tension. Our proposed device is able to capture and on-chip image ROR1+ cancer cells within a complex sample matrix (buffy coat) while simultaneously quantifying cell concentration in a point-of-care manner.
- Antibody receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1)
- Capillary action
- Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
- Particle aggregation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biomedical Engineering