Smartphone-Based Paper Microfluidic Particulometry of Norovirus from Environmental Water Samples at the Single Copy Level

Soo Chung, Lane E. Breshears, Sean Perea, Christina M. Morrison, Walter Q. Betancourt, Kelly A Reynolds, Jeong-Yeol Yoon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Scopus citations


Human enteric viruses can be highly infectious and thus capable of causing disease upon ingestion of low doses ranging from 100 to 102 virions. Norovirus is a good example with a minimum infectious dose as low as a few tens of virions, that is, below femtogram scale. Norovirus detection from commonly implicated environmental matrices (water and food) involves complicated concentration of viruses and/or amplification of the norovirus genome, thus rendering detection approaches not feasible for field applications. In this work, norovirus detection was performed on a microfluidic paper analytic device without using any sample concentration or nucleic acid amplification steps by directly imaging and counting on-paper aggregation of antibody-conjugated, fluorescent submicron particles. An in-house developed smartphone-based fluorescence microscope and an image-processing algorithm isolated the particles aggregated by antibody-antigen binding, leading to an extremely low limit of norovirus detection, as low as 1 genome copy/μL in deionized water and 10 genome copies/μL in reclaimed wastewater.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)11180-11188
Number of pages9
JournalACS Omega
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 27 2019


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)

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