Social rhythm regularity moderates the relationship between sleep disruption and depressive symptoms in veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder

Elaine M. Boland, Jennifer R. Goldschmied, Monica R. Kelly, Suzanne Perkins, Philip R. Gehrman, Patricia L Haynes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Approximately 50% to 80% of individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) also meet criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD). Sleep disturbance is a major concern in both PTSD and MDD, and is associated with poor treatment response, poor functional outcome and increased suicide risk. Social rhythm regularity, or the consistency of daily habitual behaviors, is theoretically linked to circadian rhythms and may be disturbed in both PTSD and MDD. The present study examined the relationship between social rhythm regularity, sleep disruption and MDD and PTSD symptoms in a sample of veterans with comorbid PTSD and MDD. Baseline data were obtained from 56 male veterans who met DSM-IV criteria for PTSD and MDD. Veterans completed the Social Rhythm Metric (SRM), a self-report questionnaire that assesses the regularity of routines by determining how regularly individuals completed 17 different types of activities. In a linear regression model, increased minutes awake after sleep onset (WASO) was a significant predictor of increased depression scores on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (p <.05). SRM scores did not significantly predict depressive symptoms, however the interaction of WASO and SRM significantly predicted depressive symptoms (p = <.05), with significant relationships found at SRM scores less than 3.62. Neither minutes awake after sleep onset, SRM scores, nor their interaction was associated with PTSD symptom severity. Social and possibly circadian rhythm regularity may represent a risk or resilience factor for individuals with comorbid PTSD and MDD. Findings highlight the importance of exploring the interactions of sleep and social/circadian rhythms in depression in order to inform continued treatment development.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1429-1438
Number of pages10
JournalChronobiology International
Volume36
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

Keywords

  • major depression
  • posttraumatic stress disorder
  • sleep disturbance
  • Social rhythms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)

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