Sodium lactate, sodium diacetate and pediocin: Effects and interactions on the thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes on bologna

Nicole Maks, Libin Zhu, Vijay K. Juneja, Sadhana Ravishankar

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13 Scopus citations


The effects and interactions of temperature (56.3-60 °C), sodium lactate (SL; 0-4.8%), sodium diacetate (SD; 0-0.25%) and pediocin (0-10,000 AU) on Listeria monocytogenes on bologna were studied and a predictive inactivation model was developed. Bologna was manufactured with different SL/SD concentrations in the formulation, dipped in pediocin solution and treated at different temperatures using combinations of parameters determined by central composite design. D-values were calculated and analyzed using second order response regression. Predicted D-values were also calculated. The observed D-values for L. monocytogenes on bologna ranged from 2.10 to 35.59 min. Temperature alone decreased predicted D-values from 99.02 min at 56.3 °C to 44.71 min at 60.0 °C. Adding SL decreased D-values (85.43-22.71 min) further; however, heat and SD combined was the most effective for reducing L. monocytogenes on bologna. An SD level of 0.25% at 58.2 °C had the overall lowest predicted D-value (15.95 min). Combination treatments increased or decreased D-values, depending on the temperature. Pediocin (2500 and 5000 AU) and heat decreased D-values, but exhibited a protective effect at higher concentrations (≥7500 AU). The results showed that interactions between additives in formulations can vary at different temperatures/concentrations, thereby affecting thermal inactivation of foodborne pathogens in meat products. Hence, food processors should modify food formulations carefully, and verify with adequate testing so that product safety is not compromised.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)64-69
Number of pages6
JournalFood Microbiology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2010
Externally publishedYes



  • Bologna
  • Listeria monocytogenes
  • Pediocin
  • Sodium diacetate
  • Sodium lactate
  • Thermal inactivation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Microbiology

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