Sources of method bias in social science research and recommendations on how to control it

Philip M. Podsakoff, Scott B. MacKenzie, Nathan P Podsakoff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2668 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Despite the concern that has been expressed about potential method biases, and the pervasiveness of research settings with the potential to produce them, there is disagreement about whether they really are a problem for researchers in the behavioral sciences. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to explore the current state of knowledge about method biases. First, we explore the meaning of the terms "method" and "method bias" and then we examine whether method biases influence all measures equally. Next, we review the evidence of the effects that method biases have on individual measures and on the covariation between different constructs. Following this, we evaluate the procedural and statistical remedies that have been used to control method biases and provide recommendations for minimizing method bias.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)539-569
Number of pages31
JournalAnnual Review of Psychology
Volume63
DOIs
StatePublished - 2012

Fingerprint

Social Sciences
Research
Behavioral Sciences
Research Personnel

Keywords

  • Common method variance
  • Instrumental variable technique
  • Marker variable technique
  • Response style biases
  • Unmeasured latent variable technique

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)

Cite this

Sources of method bias in social science research and recommendations on how to control it. / Podsakoff, Philip M.; MacKenzie, Scott B.; Podsakoff, Nathan P.

In: Annual Review of Psychology, Vol. 63, 2012, p. 539-569.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{c6d8f3502fd8496c860dccba6267d6c8,
title = "Sources of method bias in social science research and recommendations on how to control it",
abstract = "Despite the concern that has been expressed about potential method biases, and the pervasiveness of research settings with the potential to produce them, there is disagreement about whether they really are a problem for researchers in the behavioral sciences. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to explore the current state of knowledge about method biases. First, we explore the meaning of the terms {"}method{"} and {"}method bias{"} and then we examine whether method biases influence all measures equally. Next, we review the evidence of the effects that method biases have on individual measures and on the covariation between different constructs. Following this, we evaluate the procedural and statistical remedies that have been used to control method biases and provide recommendations for minimizing method bias.",
keywords = "Common method variance, Instrumental variable technique, Marker variable technique, Response style biases, Unmeasured latent variable technique",
author = "Podsakoff, {Philip M.} and MacKenzie, {Scott B.} and Podsakoff, {Nathan P}",
year = "2012",
doi = "10.1146/annurev-psych-120710-100452",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "63",
pages = "539--569",
journal = "Annual Review of Psychology",
issn = "0066-4308",
publisher = "Annual Reviews Inc.",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Sources of method bias in social science research and recommendations on how to control it

AU - Podsakoff, Philip M.

AU - MacKenzie, Scott B.

AU - Podsakoff, Nathan P

PY - 2012

Y1 - 2012

N2 - Despite the concern that has been expressed about potential method biases, and the pervasiveness of research settings with the potential to produce them, there is disagreement about whether they really are a problem for researchers in the behavioral sciences. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to explore the current state of knowledge about method biases. First, we explore the meaning of the terms "method" and "method bias" and then we examine whether method biases influence all measures equally. Next, we review the evidence of the effects that method biases have on individual measures and on the covariation between different constructs. Following this, we evaluate the procedural and statistical remedies that have been used to control method biases and provide recommendations for minimizing method bias.

AB - Despite the concern that has been expressed about potential method biases, and the pervasiveness of research settings with the potential to produce them, there is disagreement about whether they really are a problem for researchers in the behavioral sciences. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to explore the current state of knowledge about method biases. First, we explore the meaning of the terms "method" and "method bias" and then we examine whether method biases influence all measures equally. Next, we review the evidence of the effects that method biases have on individual measures and on the covariation between different constructs. Following this, we evaluate the procedural and statistical remedies that have been used to control method biases and provide recommendations for minimizing method bias.

KW - Common method variance

KW - Instrumental variable technique

KW - Marker variable technique

KW - Response style biases

KW - Unmeasured latent variable technique

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=82955240674&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=82955240674&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1146/annurev-psych-120710-100452

DO - 10.1146/annurev-psych-120710-100452

M3 - Article

C2 - 21838546

AN - SCOPUS:82955240674

VL - 63

SP - 539

EP - 569

JO - Annual Review of Psychology

JF - Annual Review of Psychology

SN - 0066-4308

ER -