Spatial distribution of near-infrared and optical emission properties in the bipolar nebula Menzel 3

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Abstract

Visiting Astronomer at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatories, operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. Ground-based optical spectra combined with near-infrared spectra and images of the young bipolar planetary nebula Menzel 3 (Mz 3) reveal positional variations in extinction, excitation, density and other characteristics. Interstellar extinction is probably less than Av = 2.65, while extinction toward the nucleus is approximately 4.6 mag. The lobes show stratified ionization, with high-excitation emission localized at high latitudes. Quantitative analysis using the CLOUDY spectral synthesis code suggests that the polar lobes 'see' an excitation source similar to a blackbody of roughly 36 000 K and 10 000 L, and chemical abundances reveal that the ejecta have He enhanced by a factor of ∼2, and N enhanced more strongly, with N/O∼1. The lobes are probably radiatively excited, but shocks may heat the 'blisters' at the polar axis. The bright, unresolved nucleus has a crowded emission spectrum distinct from the diffuse bipolar lobes, and it indicates high electron densities of 106-107 cm-3. An equatorial disc-like geometry for dense gas in the nucleus is likely. The nucleus also shows a nearly power-law continuum; when corrected for reddening it may require two stars, one hot star and one cool giant, along with hot ∼900-K dust. A distance up to ∼2.5 kpc is possible. In general, the spectral characteristics of Mz 3 are similar to those of the well-studied nebula M 2-9, and the two objects may share a similar evolutionary history. However, an important difference between them is that Mz 3 appears to be mostly devoid of molecular hydrogen, while infrared H2 lines are conspicuous in M 2-9.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)383-398
Number of pages16
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume342
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 21 2003
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

nebulae
lobes
light emission
near infrared
spatial distribution
extinction
astronomy
nuclei
observatory
observatories
heat shock
excitation
ejecta
blisters
interstellar extinction
quantitative analysis
electron density
hot stars
power law
planetary nebulae

Keywords

  • Circumstellar matter
  • Planetary nebulae: General
  • Planetary nebulae: Individual: Mz 3
  • Stars: Evolution
  • Stars: Mass-loss

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

@article{cc12a52d06094565822c4166f86462a4,
title = "Spatial distribution of near-infrared and optical emission properties in the bipolar nebula Menzel 3",
abstract = "Visiting Astronomer at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatories, operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. Ground-based optical spectra combined with near-infrared spectra and images of the young bipolar planetary nebula Menzel 3 (Mz 3) reveal positional variations in extinction, excitation, density and other characteristics. Interstellar extinction is probably less than Av = 2.65, while extinction toward the nucleus is approximately 4.6 mag. The lobes show stratified ionization, with high-excitation emission localized at high latitudes. Quantitative analysis using the CLOUDY spectral synthesis code suggests that the polar lobes 'see' an excitation source similar to a blackbody of roughly 36 000 K and 10 000 L⊙, and chemical abundances reveal that the ejecta have He enhanced by a factor of ∼2, and N enhanced more strongly, with N/O∼1. The lobes are probably radiatively excited, but shocks may heat the 'blisters' at the polar axis. The bright, unresolved nucleus has a crowded emission spectrum distinct from the diffuse bipolar lobes, and it indicates high electron densities of 106-107 cm-3. An equatorial disc-like geometry for dense gas in the nucleus is likely. The nucleus also shows a nearly power-law continuum; when corrected for reddening it may require two stars, one hot star and one cool giant, along with hot ∼900-K dust. A distance up to ∼2.5 kpc is possible. In general, the spectral characteristics of Mz 3 are similar to those of the well-studied nebula M 2-9, and the two objects may share a similar evolutionary history. However, an important difference between them is that Mz 3 appears to be mostly devoid of molecular hydrogen, while infrared H2 lines are conspicuous in M 2-9.",
keywords = "Circumstellar matter, Planetary nebulae: General, Planetary nebulae: Individual: Mz 3, Stars: Evolution, Stars: Mass-loss",
author = "Nathan Smith",
year = "2003",
month = "6",
day = "21",
doi = "10.1046/j.1365-8711.2003.06557.x",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "342",
pages = "383--398",
journal = "Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Spatial distribution of near-infrared and optical emission properties in the bipolar nebula Menzel 3

AU - Smith, Nathan

PY - 2003/6/21

Y1 - 2003/6/21

N2 - Visiting Astronomer at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatories, operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. Ground-based optical spectra combined with near-infrared spectra and images of the young bipolar planetary nebula Menzel 3 (Mz 3) reveal positional variations in extinction, excitation, density and other characteristics. Interstellar extinction is probably less than Av = 2.65, while extinction toward the nucleus is approximately 4.6 mag. The lobes show stratified ionization, with high-excitation emission localized at high latitudes. Quantitative analysis using the CLOUDY spectral synthesis code suggests that the polar lobes 'see' an excitation source similar to a blackbody of roughly 36 000 K and 10 000 L⊙, and chemical abundances reveal that the ejecta have He enhanced by a factor of ∼2, and N enhanced more strongly, with N/O∼1. The lobes are probably radiatively excited, but shocks may heat the 'blisters' at the polar axis. The bright, unresolved nucleus has a crowded emission spectrum distinct from the diffuse bipolar lobes, and it indicates high electron densities of 106-107 cm-3. An equatorial disc-like geometry for dense gas in the nucleus is likely. The nucleus also shows a nearly power-law continuum; when corrected for reddening it may require two stars, one hot star and one cool giant, along with hot ∼900-K dust. A distance up to ∼2.5 kpc is possible. In general, the spectral characteristics of Mz 3 are similar to those of the well-studied nebula M 2-9, and the two objects may share a similar evolutionary history. However, an important difference between them is that Mz 3 appears to be mostly devoid of molecular hydrogen, while infrared H2 lines are conspicuous in M 2-9.

AB - Visiting Astronomer at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatories, operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. Ground-based optical spectra combined with near-infrared spectra and images of the young bipolar planetary nebula Menzel 3 (Mz 3) reveal positional variations in extinction, excitation, density and other characteristics. Interstellar extinction is probably less than Av = 2.65, while extinction toward the nucleus is approximately 4.6 mag. The lobes show stratified ionization, with high-excitation emission localized at high latitudes. Quantitative analysis using the CLOUDY spectral synthesis code suggests that the polar lobes 'see' an excitation source similar to a blackbody of roughly 36 000 K and 10 000 L⊙, and chemical abundances reveal that the ejecta have He enhanced by a factor of ∼2, and N enhanced more strongly, with N/O∼1. The lobes are probably radiatively excited, but shocks may heat the 'blisters' at the polar axis. The bright, unresolved nucleus has a crowded emission spectrum distinct from the diffuse bipolar lobes, and it indicates high electron densities of 106-107 cm-3. An equatorial disc-like geometry for dense gas in the nucleus is likely. The nucleus also shows a nearly power-law continuum; when corrected for reddening it may require two stars, one hot star and one cool giant, along with hot ∼900-K dust. A distance up to ∼2.5 kpc is possible. In general, the spectral characteristics of Mz 3 are similar to those of the well-studied nebula M 2-9, and the two objects may share a similar evolutionary history. However, an important difference between them is that Mz 3 appears to be mostly devoid of molecular hydrogen, while infrared H2 lines are conspicuous in M 2-9.

KW - Circumstellar matter

KW - Planetary nebulae: General

KW - Planetary nebulae: Individual: Mz 3

KW - Stars: Evolution

KW - Stars: Mass-loss

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