Spectrum of esophageal motility disorders: Implications for diagnosis and treatment

Marco G. Patti, Maria V. Gorodner, Carlos A Galvani, Pietro Tedesco, Piero M. Fisichella, James W. Ostroff, Karen C. Bagatelos, Lawrence W. Way, John Hunter, Stephen Jolley, Raymond Joehl

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

67 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: The named primary esophageal motility disorders (PEMDs) are achalasia, diffuse esophageal spasm (DES), nutcracker esophagus (NE), and hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter (HTN-LES). Although the diagnosis and treatment of achalasia are well defined, such is not the case with the other disorders. Hypothesis: (1) Symptoms do not reliably distinguish PEMDs from gastroesophageal reflux disease; (2) esophageal function tests are essential to this distinction and to identifying the type of PEMD; (3) minimally invasive surgery is effective for each condition; and (4) the laparoscopic approach is better than the thoracoscopic approach. Design: University hospital tertiary care center. Setting: Retrospective review of a prospectively collected database. Patients and Methods: A diagnosis of PEMD was established in 397 patients by esophagogram, endoscopy, manometry, and pH monitoring. There were 305 patients (77%) with achalasia, 49 patients (12%) with DES, 41 patients (10%) with NE, and 2 patients (1%) with HTNLES. Two hundred eight patients (52%) underwent a myotomy by either a thoracoscopic or a laparoscopic approach. Results: Ninety-nine patients (25%) had a diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease at the time of referral and had been treated with acid-suppressing medications. In achalasia and DES, a thoracoscopic or laparoscopic myotomy relieved dysphagia and chest pain in more than 80% of the patients. In contrast, in NE the results were less predictable, and the operation most often failed to relieve symptoms. Conclusions: These results show that (1) symptoms were unreliable in distinguishing gastroesophageal reflux disease from PEMDs; (2) esophageal function tests were essential to diagnose PEMD and to define its type; (3) the laparoscopic approach was better than the thoracoscopic approach; (4) a laparoscopic Heller myotomy is the treatment of choice for achalasia, DES, and HTNLES; and (5) a predictably good treatment for NE is still elusive, and the results of surgery were disappointing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)442-449
Number of pages8
JournalArchives of Surgery
Volume140
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2005
Externally publishedYes

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Esophageal Motility Disorders
Diffuse Esophageal Spasm
Esophageal Achalasia
Gastroesophageal Reflux
Therapeutics
Lower Esophageal Sphincter
Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures
Manometry
Deglutition Disorders
Chest Pain
Tertiary Care Centers
Endoscopy
Referral and Consultation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

Cite this

Patti, M. G., Gorodner, M. V., Galvani, C. A., Tedesco, P., Fisichella, P. M., Ostroff, J. W., ... Joehl, R. (2005). Spectrum of esophageal motility disorders: Implications for diagnosis and treatment. Archives of Surgery, 140(5), 442-449. https://doi.org/10.1001/archsurg.140.5.442

Spectrum of esophageal motility disorders : Implications for diagnosis and treatment. / Patti, Marco G.; Gorodner, Maria V.; Galvani, Carlos A; Tedesco, Pietro; Fisichella, Piero M.; Ostroff, James W.; Bagatelos, Karen C.; Way, Lawrence W.; Hunter, John; Jolley, Stephen; Joehl, Raymond.

In: Archives of Surgery, Vol. 140, No. 5, 05.2005, p. 442-449.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Patti, MG, Gorodner, MV, Galvani, CA, Tedesco, P, Fisichella, PM, Ostroff, JW, Bagatelos, KC, Way, LW, Hunter, J, Jolley, S & Joehl, R 2005, 'Spectrum of esophageal motility disorders: Implications for diagnosis and treatment', Archives of Surgery, vol. 140, no. 5, pp. 442-449. https://doi.org/10.1001/archsurg.140.5.442
Patti, Marco G. ; Gorodner, Maria V. ; Galvani, Carlos A ; Tedesco, Pietro ; Fisichella, Piero M. ; Ostroff, James W. ; Bagatelos, Karen C. ; Way, Lawrence W. ; Hunter, John ; Jolley, Stephen ; Joehl, Raymond. / Spectrum of esophageal motility disorders : Implications for diagnosis and treatment. In: Archives of Surgery. 2005 ; Vol. 140, No. 5. pp. 442-449.
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abstract = "Background: The named primary esophageal motility disorders (PEMDs) are achalasia, diffuse esophageal spasm (DES), nutcracker esophagus (NE), and hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter (HTN-LES). Although the diagnosis and treatment of achalasia are well defined, such is not the case with the other disorders. Hypothesis: (1) Symptoms do not reliably distinguish PEMDs from gastroesophageal reflux disease; (2) esophageal function tests are essential to this distinction and to identifying the type of PEMD; (3) minimally invasive surgery is effective for each condition; and (4) the laparoscopic approach is better than the thoracoscopic approach. Design: University hospital tertiary care center. Setting: Retrospective review of a prospectively collected database. Patients and Methods: A diagnosis of PEMD was established in 397 patients by esophagogram, endoscopy, manometry, and pH monitoring. There were 305 patients (77{\%}) with achalasia, 49 patients (12{\%}) with DES, 41 patients (10{\%}) with NE, and 2 patients (1{\%}) with HTNLES. Two hundred eight patients (52{\%}) underwent a myotomy by either a thoracoscopic or a laparoscopic approach. Results: Ninety-nine patients (25{\%}) had a diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease at the time of referral and had been treated with acid-suppressing medications. In achalasia and DES, a thoracoscopic or laparoscopic myotomy relieved dysphagia and chest pain in more than 80{\%} of the patients. In contrast, in NE the results were less predictable, and the operation most often failed to relieve symptoms. Conclusions: These results show that (1) symptoms were unreliable in distinguishing gastroesophageal reflux disease from PEMDs; (2) esophageal function tests were essential to diagnose PEMD and to define its type; (3) the laparoscopic approach was better than the thoracoscopic approach; (4) a laparoscopic Heller myotomy is the treatment of choice for achalasia, DES, and HTNLES; and (5) a predictably good treatment for NE is still elusive, and the results of surgery were disappointing.",
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AU - Galvani, Carlos A

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AU - Fisichella, Piero M.

AU - Ostroff, James W.

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AU - Way, Lawrence W.

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