Mutations in hundreds of genes cause neurodevelopmental disorders with abnormal motor behavior alongside cognitive deficits. Boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS), a leading monogenic cause of intellectual disability, often display repetitive behaviors, a core feature of autism. By direct observation and manual analysis, we characterized spontaneous-motor-behavior phenotypes of Drosophila dfmr1 mutants, an established model for FXS. We recorded individual 1-day-old adult flies, with mature nervous systems and prior to the onset of aging, in small arenas. We scored behavior using open-source video-annotation software to generate continuous activity timelines, which were represented graphically and quantitatively. Young dfmr1 mutants spent excessive time grooming, with increased bout number and duration; both were rescued by transgenic wild-type dfmr1+. By two grooming-pattern measures, dfmr1-mutant flies showed elevated repetitions consistent with perseveration, which is common in FXS. In addition, the mutant flies display a preference for grooming posterior body structures, and an increased rate of grooming transitions from one site to another. We raise the possibility that courtship and circadian rhythm defects, previously reported for dfmr1 mutants, are complicated by excessive grooming. We also observed significantly increased grooming in CASK mutants, despite their dramatically decreased walking phenotype. The mutant flies, a model for human CASK-related neurodevelopmental disorders, displayed consistently elevated grooming indices throughout the assay, but transient locomotory activation immediately after placement in the arena. Based on published data identifying FMRP-target transcripts and functional analyses of mutations causing human genetic neurodevelopmental disorders, we propose the following proteins as candidate mediators of excessive repetitive behaviors in FXS: CaMKIIα, NMDA receptor subunits 2A and 2B, NLGN3, and SHANK3. Together, these fly-mutant phenotypes and mechanistic insights provide starting points for drug discovery to identify compounds that reduce dysfunctional repetitive behaviors.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience