Stress-Induced Recovery of Fears and Phobias

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

224 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Accounts of human fears and phobias based on current conditioning models using data from adults are examined and found wanting. Instead, the characteristics of human phobias resemble the kind of learning found during the amnesic period of infancy. As certain neural systems mature, conditioning begins to exhibit adult characteristics: context dependency, sharp generalization, and rapid extinction. Although direct behavioral control by the early learning systems wanes, the adult learning system seems to be structured at least partially through the lasting influence of infantile experience. Under (hormonal) stress, residues of early experience are reinstated and incorporated into adult memory where they directly control behavior. This control exhibits infantile characteristics. The evidence suggests that once acquired, such conditional fears might never be eliminated using traditional extinction or counterconditioning procedures. The view leads to a renewed emphasis upon the role of experience in human development, accepting the disproportionate importance of infant experience as the foundation upon which subsequent learning and cognitive function rest.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)512-531
Number of pages20
JournalPsychological Review
Volume92
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1985
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Phobic Disorders
Fear
Learning
Behavior Control
Human Development
Cognition
Phobia
Recovery
Extinction
Learning Systems
Conditioning
Conditioning (Psychology)
Psychological Extinction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)
  • History and Philosophy of Science

Cite this

Stress-Induced Recovery of Fears and Phobias. / Jacobs, William J; Nadel, Lynn.

In: Psychological Review, Vol. 92, No. 4, 10.1985, p. 512-531.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{89f0cf78c6fb4e67b30882c3e2631161,
title = "Stress-Induced Recovery of Fears and Phobias",
abstract = "Accounts of human fears and phobias based on current conditioning models using data from adults are examined and found wanting. Instead, the characteristics of human phobias resemble the kind of learning found during the amnesic period of infancy. As certain neural systems mature, conditioning begins to exhibit adult characteristics: context dependency, sharp generalization, and rapid extinction. Although direct behavioral control by the early learning systems wanes, the adult learning system seems to be structured at least partially through the lasting influence of infantile experience. Under (hormonal) stress, residues of early experience are reinstated and incorporated into adult memory where they directly control behavior. This control exhibits infantile characteristics. The evidence suggests that once acquired, such conditional fears might never be eliminated using traditional extinction or counterconditioning procedures. The view leads to a renewed emphasis upon the role of experience in human development, accepting the disproportionate importance of infant experience as the foundation upon which subsequent learning and cognitive function rest.",
author = "Jacobs, {William J} and Lynn Nadel",
year = "1985",
month = "10",
doi = "10.1037/0033-295X.92.4.512",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "92",
pages = "512--531",
journal = "Psychological Review",
issn = "0033-295X",
publisher = "American Psychological Association Inc.",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Stress-Induced Recovery of Fears and Phobias

AU - Jacobs, William J

AU - Nadel, Lynn

PY - 1985/10

Y1 - 1985/10

N2 - Accounts of human fears and phobias based on current conditioning models using data from adults are examined and found wanting. Instead, the characteristics of human phobias resemble the kind of learning found during the amnesic period of infancy. As certain neural systems mature, conditioning begins to exhibit adult characteristics: context dependency, sharp generalization, and rapid extinction. Although direct behavioral control by the early learning systems wanes, the adult learning system seems to be structured at least partially through the lasting influence of infantile experience. Under (hormonal) stress, residues of early experience are reinstated and incorporated into adult memory where they directly control behavior. This control exhibits infantile characteristics. The evidence suggests that once acquired, such conditional fears might never be eliminated using traditional extinction or counterconditioning procedures. The view leads to a renewed emphasis upon the role of experience in human development, accepting the disproportionate importance of infant experience as the foundation upon which subsequent learning and cognitive function rest.

AB - Accounts of human fears and phobias based on current conditioning models using data from adults are examined and found wanting. Instead, the characteristics of human phobias resemble the kind of learning found during the amnesic period of infancy. As certain neural systems mature, conditioning begins to exhibit adult characteristics: context dependency, sharp generalization, and rapid extinction. Although direct behavioral control by the early learning systems wanes, the adult learning system seems to be structured at least partially through the lasting influence of infantile experience. Under (hormonal) stress, residues of early experience are reinstated and incorporated into adult memory where they directly control behavior. This control exhibits infantile characteristics. The evidence suggests that once acquired, such conditional fears might never be eliminated using traditional extinction or counterconditioning procedures. The view leads to a renewed emphasis upon the role of experience in human development, accepting the disproportionate importance of infant experience as the foundation upon which subsequent learning and cognitive function rest.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0022136171&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0022136171&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1037/0033-295X.92.4.512

DO - 10.1037/0033-295X.92.4.512

M3 - Article

C2 - 3903814

AN - SCOPUS:0022136171

VL - 92

SP - 512

EP - 531

JO - Psychological Review

JF - Psychological Review

SN - 0033-295X

IS - 4

ER -