### Abstract

According to the standard prescriptions, zero-temperature string theories can be extended to finite temperature by compactifying their time directions on a so-called "thermal circle" and implementing certain orbifold twists. However, the existence of a topologically nontrivial thermal circle leaves open the possibility that a gauge flux can pierce this circle-i.e., that a nontrivial Wilson line (or equivalently a nonzero chemical potential) might be involved in the finite-temperature extension. In this paper, we concentrate on the zero-temperature heterotic and TypeI strings in ten dimensions, and survey the possible Wilson lines which might be introduced in their finite-temperature extensions. We find a rich structure of possible thermal string theories, some of which even have nontraditional Hagedorn temperatures, and we demonstrate that these new thermal string theories can be interpreted as extrema of a continuous thermal free-energy "landscape." Our analysis also uncovers a unique finite-temperature extension of the heterotic SO(32) and E _{8}× E _{8} strings which involves a nontrivial Wilson line, but which-like the traditional finite-temperature extension without Wilson lines-is metastable in this thermal landscape.

Original language | English (US) |
---|---|

Article number | 066007 |

Journal | Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology |

Volume | 86 |

Issue number | 6 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - Sep 17 2012 |

### Fingerprint

### ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Nuclear and High Energy Physics

### Cite this

*Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology*,

*86*(6), [066007]. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.86.066007

**Strings at finite temperature : Wilson lines, free energies, and the thermal landscape.** / Dienes, Keith R; Lennek, Michael; Sharma, Menika.

Research output: Contribution to journal › Article

*Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology*, vol. 86, no. 6, 066007. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.86.066007

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Strings at finite temperature

T2 - Wilson lines, free energies, and the thermal landscape

AU - Dienes, Keith R

AU - Lennek, Michael

AU - Sharma, Menika

PY - 2012/9/17

Y1 - 2012/9/17

N2 - According to the standard prescriptions, zero-temperature string theories can be extended to finite temperature by compactifying their time directions on a so-called "thermal circle" and implementing certain orbifold twists. However, the existence of a topologically nontrivial thermal circle leaves open the possibility that a gauge flux can pierce this circle-i.e., that a nontrivial Wilson line (or equivalently a nonzero chemical potential) might be involved in the finite-temperature extension. In this paper, we concentrate on the zero-temperature heterotic and TypeI strings in ten dimensions, and survey the possible Wilson lines which might be introduced in their finite-temperature extensions. We find a rich structure of possible thermal string theories, some of which even have nontraditional Hagedorn temperatures, and we demonstrate that these new thermal string theories can be interpreted as extrema of a continuous thermal free-energy "landscape." Our analysis also uncovers a unique finite-temperature extension of the heterotic SO(32) and E 8× E 8 strings which involves a nontrivial Wilson line, but which-like the traditional finite-temperature extension without Wilson lines-is metastable in this thermal landscape.

AB - According to the standard prescriptions, zero-temperature string theories can be extended to finite temperature by compactifying their time directions on a so-called "thermal circle" and implementing certain orbifold twists. However, the existence of a topologically nontrivial thermal circle leaves open the possibility that a gauge flux can pierce this circle-i.e., that a nontrivial Wilson line (or equivalently a nonzero chemical potential) might be involved in the finite-temperature extension. In this paper, we concentrate on the zero-temperature heterotic and TypeI strings in ten dimensions, and survey the possible Wilson lines which might be introduced in their finite-temperature extensions. We find a rich structure of possible thermal string theories, some of which even have nontraditional Hagedorn temperatures, and we demonstrate that these new thermal string theories can be interpreted as extrema of a continuous thermal free-energy "landscape." Our analysis also uncovers a unique finite-temperature extension of the heterotic SO(32) and E 8× E 8 strings which involves a nontrivial Wilson line, but which-like the traditional finite-temperature extension without Wilson lines-is metastable in this thermal landscape.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84866681446&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84866681446&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1103/PhysRevD.86.066007

DO - 10.1103/PhysRevD.86.066007

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84866681446

VL - 86

JO - Physical review D: Particles and fields

JF - Physical review D: Particles and fields

SN - 0556-2821

IS - 6

M1 - 066007

ER -