Structural charge and cesium retention in a chronosequence of tephritic soils

Jon Chorover, Marnie J. DiChiaro, Oliver A. Chadwick

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

39 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Mineral transformation during the course of soil development is probably coupled to time-dependent trends in surface-charge and selective adsorption behavior, but the relationships are not well documented. The density of permanent (structural) charge is subject to change as a result of accretion or depletion of 2:1 layer-type silicates. The objectives of this study were to measure changes in (i) Cs+ selectivity and (ii) structural charge as affected by pedogenic mineral transformations in an age sequence of Hawaiian soils. The Cs+ → Li exchange experiments were conducted on soils collected from six sites [basaltic parent material deposited 0.3, 20, 150, 400, 1400 and 4100 thousands of years (ky) ago]. Identical exchange experiments were performed with kaolinite, montmorillonite, and illite for comparison. Selectivity for Cs+ on soils and clays increased with adsorbed mole fraction of Cs+. Cesium-accessible structural charge of the surface soils increased initially with soil age from 20 mmol(c) kg-1 at the 0.3 ky site to 113 mmol(c) kg-1 at the 400-ky site. Increased weathering beyond 400 ky reduced structural charge to 21 mmol(c) kg-1 for the oldest site. Parallel results were observed for subsurface soils with maximum structural charge of 138 mmol(c) kg-1 measured for the 400 ky site. The magnitude of Cs retention in the soils is correlated with the presence of 2:1 layer-type silicates detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD) after removal of poorly crystalline constituents. The results indicate a modest accumulation of secondary 2:1 layer-type silicates (with larger accumulations of poorly crystalline clays), followed by their subsequent decline, during the course of soil weathering.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)169-177
Number of pages9
JournalSoil Science Society of America Journal
Volume63
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1999
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

cesium
chronosequences
chronosequence
silicates
soil
silicate
clay
soil weathering
weathering
minerals
age of soil
illite
montmorillonite
kaolinite
mineral
parent material
adsorption
diffraction
X-radiation
soil surface

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Soil Science
  • Earth-Surface Processes

Cite this

Structural charge and cesium retention in a chronosequence of tephritic soils. / Chorover, Jon; DiChiaro, Marnie J.; Chadwick, Oliver A.

In: Soil Science Society of America Journal, Vol. 63, No. 1, 01.1999, p. 169-177.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Chorover, Jon ; DiChiaro, Marnie J. ; Chadwick, Oliver A. / Structural charge and cesium retention in a chronosequence of tephritic soils. In: Soil Science Society of America Journal. 1999 ; Vol. 63, No. 1. pp. 169-177.
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