Subcutaneous fat patterning in athletes: Selection of appropriate sites and standardisation of a novel ultrasound measurement technique: Ad hoc working group on body composition, health and performance, under the auspices of the IOC Medical Commission

Wolfram Müller, Timothy G Lohman, Arthur D. Stewart, Ronald J. Maughan, Nanna L. Meyer, Luis B. Sardinha, Nuwanee Kirihennedige, Alba Reguant-Closa, Vanessa Risoul-Salas, Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen, Helmut Ahammer, Friedrich Anderhuber, Alfred Fürhapter-Rieger, Philipp Kainz, Wilfried Materna, Ulrike Pilsl, Wolfram Pirstinger, Timothy R. Ackland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background Precise and accurate field methods for body composition analyses in athletes are needed urgently. Aim Standardisation of a novel ultrasound (US) technique for accurate and reliable measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Methods Three observers captured US images of uncompressed SAT in 12 athletes and applied a semiautomatic evaluation algorithm for multiple SAT measurements. Results Eight new sites are recommended: upper abdomen, lower abdomen, erector spinae, distal triceps, brachioradialis, lateral thigh, front thigh, medial calf. Obtainable accuracy was 0.2 mm (18 MHz probe; speed of sound: 1450 m/s). Reliability of SAT thickness sums (N=36): R2=0.998, SEE=0.55 mm, ICC (95% CI) 0.998 (0.994 to 0.999); observer differences from their mean: 95% of the SAT thickness sums were within ±1 mm (sums of SAT thicknesses ranged from 10 to 50 mm). Embedded fibrous tissues were also measured. Conclusions A minimum of eight sites is suggested to accommodate inter-individual differences in SAT patterning. All sites overlie muscle with a clearly visible fascia, which eases the acquisition of clear images and the marking of these sites takes only a few minutes. This US method reaches the fundamental accuracy and precision limits for SAT measurements given by tissue plasticity and furrowed borders, provided the measurers are trained appropriately.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)45-54
Number of pages10
JournalBritish Journal of Sports Medicine
Volume50
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2016

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Subcutaneous Fat
Body Composition
Athletes
Health
Thigh
Abdomen
Fascia
Individuality
Muscles

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Cite this

Subcutaneous fat patterning in athletes : Selection of appropriate sites and standardisation of a novel ultrasound measurement technique: Ad hoc working group on body composition, health and performance, under the auspices of the IOC Medical Commission. / Müller, Wolfram; Lohman, Timothy G; Stewart, Arthur D.; Maughan, Ronald J.; Meyer, Nanna L.; Sardinha, Luis B.; Kirihennedige, Nuwanee; Reguant-Closa, Alba; Risoul-Salas, Vanessa; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Ahammer, Helmut; Anderhuber, Friedrich; Fürhapter-Rieger, Alfred; Kainz, Philipp; Materna, Wilfried; Pilsl, Ulrike; Pirstinger, Wolfram; Ackland, Timothy R.

In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, Vol. 50, No. 1, 01.01.2016, p. 45-54.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Müller, W, Lohman, TG, Stewart, AD, Maughan, RJ, Meyer, NL, Sardinha, LB, Kirihennedige, N, Reguant-Closa, A, Risoul-Salas, V, Sundgot-Borgen, J, Ahammer, H, Anderhuber, F, Fürhapter-Rieger, A, Kainz, P, Materna, W, Pilsl, U, Pirstinger, W & Ackland, TR 2016, 'Subcutaneous fat patterning in athletes: Selection of appropriate sites and standardisation of a novel ultrasound measurement technique: Ad hoc working group on body composition, health and performance, under the auspices of the IOC Medical Commission', British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 45-54. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-095641
Müller, Wolfram ; Lohman, Timothy G ; Stewart, Arthur D. ; Maughan, Ronald J. ; Meyer, Nanna L. ; Sardinha, Luis B. ; Kirihennedige, Nuwanee ; Reguant-Closa, Alba ; Risoul-Salas, Vanessa ; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn ; Ahammer, Helmut ; Anderhuber, Friedrich ; Fürhapter-Rieger, Alfred ; Kainz, Philipp ; Materna, Wilfried ; Pilsl, Ulrike ; Pirstinger, Wolfram ; Ackland, Timothy R. / Subcutaneous fat patterning in athletes : Selection of appropriate sites and standardisation of a novel ultrasound measurement technique: Ad hoc working group on body composition, health and performance, under the auspices of the IOC Medical Commission. In: British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2016 ; Vol. 50, No. 1. pp. 45-54.
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abstract = "Background Precise and accurate field methods for body composition analyses in athletes are needed urgently. Aim Standardisation of a novel ultrasound (US) technique for accurate and reliable measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Methods Three observers captured US images of uncompressed SAT in 12 athletes and applied a semiautomatic evaluation algorithm for multiple SAT measurements. Results Eight new sites are recommended: upper abdomen, lower abdomen, erector spinae, distal triceps, brachioradialis, lateral thigh, front thigh, medial calf. Obtainable accuracy was 0.2 mm (18 MHz probe; speed of sound: 1450 m/s). Reliability of SAT thickness sums (N=36): R2=0.998, SEE=0.55 mm, ICC (95{\%} CI) 0.998 (0.994 to 0.999); observer differences from their mean: 95{\%} of the SAT thickness sums were within ±1 mm (sums of SAT thicknesses ranged from 10 to 50 mm). Embedded fibrous tissues were also measured. Conclusions A minimum of eight sites is suggested to accommodate inter-individual differences in SAT patterning. All sites overlie muscle with a clearly visible fascia, which eases the acquisition of clear images and the marking of these sites takes only a few minutes. This US method reaches the fundamental accuracy and precision limits for SAT measurements given by tissue plasticity and furrowed borders, provided the measurers are trained appropriately.",
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T2 - Selection of appropriate sites and standardisation of a novel ultrasound measurement technique: Ad hoc working group on body composition, health and performance, under the auspices of the IOC Medical Commission

AU - Müller, Wolfram

AU - Lohman, Timothy G

AU - Stewart, Arthur D.

AU - Maughan, Ronald J.

AU - Meyer, Nanna L.

AU - Sardinha, Luis B.

AU - Kirihennedige, Nuwanee

AU - Reguant-Closa, Alba

AU - Risoul-Salas, Vanessa

AU - Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

AU - Ahammer, Helmut

AU - Anderhuber, Friedrich

AU - Fürhapter-Rieger, Alfred

AU - Kainz, Philipp

AU - Materna, Wilfried

AU - Pilsl, Ulrike

AU - Pirstinger, Wolfram

AU - Ackland, Timothy R.

PY - 2016/1/1

Y1 - 2016/1/1

N2 - Background Precise and accurate field methods for body composition analyses in athletes are needed urgently. Aim Standardisation of a novel ultrasound (US) technique for accurate and reliable measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Methods Three observers captured US images of uncompressed SAT in 12 athletes and applied a semiautomatic evaluation algorithm for multiple SAT measurements. Results Eight new sites are recommended: upper abdomen, lower abdomen, erector spinae, distal triceps, brachioradialis, lateral thigh, front thigh, medial calf. Obtainable accuracy was 0.2 mm (18 MHz probe; speed of sound: 1450 m/s). Reliability of SAT thickness sums (N=36): R2=0.998, SEE=0.55 mm, ICC (95% CI) 0.998 (0.994 to 0.999); observer differences from their mean: 95% of the SAT thickness sums were within ±1 mm (sums of SAT thicknesses ranged from 10 to 50 mm). Embedded fibrous tissues were also measured. Conclusions A minimum of eight sites is suggested to accommodate inter-individual differences in SAT patterning. All sites overlie muscle with a clearly visible fascia, which eases the acquisition of clear images and the marking of these sites takes only a few minutes. This US method reaches the fundamental accuracy and precision limits for SAT measurements given by tissue plasticity and furrowed borders, provided the measurers are trained appropriately.

AB - Background Precise and accurate field methods for body composition analyses in athletes are needed urgently. Aim Standardisation of a novel ultrasound (US) technique for accurate and reliable measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Methods Three observers captured US images of uncompressed SAT in 12 athletes and applied a semiautomatic evaluation algorithm for multiple SAT measurements. Results Eight new sites are recommended: upper abdomen, lower abdomen, erector spinae, distal triceps, brachioradialis, lateral thigh, front thigh, medial calf. Obtainable accuracy was 0.2 mm (18 MHz probe; speed of sound: 1450 m/s). Reliability of SAT thickness sums (N=36): R2=0.998, SEE=0.55 mm, ICC (95% CI) 0.998 (0.994 to 0.999); observer differences from their mean: 95% of the SAT thickness sums were within ±1 mm (sums of SAT thicknesses ranged from 10 to 50 mm). Embedded fibrous tissues were also measured. Conclusions A minimum of eight sites is suggested to accommodate inter-individual differences in SAT patterning. All sites overlie muscle with a clearly visible fascia, which eases the acquisition of clear images and the marking of these sites takes only a few minutes. This US method reaches the fundamental accuracy and precision limits for SAT measurements given by tissue plasticity and furrowed borders, provided the measurers are trained appropriately.

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