Survival benefits of remote ischemic conditioning in sepsis

Bellal A Joseph, Mazhar Khalil, Ammar Hashmi, Louise Hecker, Narong Kulvatunyou, Andrew - Tang, Randall S Friese, Peter M Rhee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background Sepsis remains the leading cause of death in the surgical intensive care unit. Prior studies have demonstrated a survival benefit of remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) in many disease states. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of RIC on survival in sepsis in an animal model and to assess alterations in inflammatory biochemical profiles. We hypothesized that RIC alters inflammatory biochemical profiles resulting in decreased mortality in a septic mouse model. Materials and methods Eight to 12 week C57BL/6 mice received intra-peritoneal injection of 12.5-mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Septic animals in the experimental group underwent RIC at 0, 2, and 6 h after LPS by surgical exploration and alternate clamping of the femoral artery. Six 4-min cycles of ischemia-reperfusion were performed. Primary outcome was survival at 5-d after LPS injection. Secondary outcome was to assess the following serum cytokine levels: interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-10, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factoralpha (TNFα) at the baseline before LPS injection, 0 hour after LPS injection, and at 2, 4, 24 hours after induction of sepsis (RIC was performed at 2 h after LPS injection). Kaplan–Meier survival analysis and log-rank test were used. ANOVA test was used to compare cytokine measurements. Results We performed experiments on 44 mice: 14 sham and 30 RIC mice (10 at each time point). Overall survival was higher in the experimental group compared to the sham group (57% versus 21%; P = 0.02), with the highest survival rate observed in the 2-hour post-RIC group (70%). On Kaplan–Meier analysis, 2-h post-RIC group had increased survival at 5 days after LPS (P = 0.04) with hazard ratio of 0.3 (95% confidence interval = 0.09-0.98). In the RIC group, serum concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-1β, and TNFα peaked at 2 h after LPS and then decreased significantly over 24 hours (P < 0.0001) compared to the baseline. Conclusions RIC improves survival in sepsis and has the potential for implementation in the clinical practice. Early implementation of RIC may play an immune-modulatory role in sepsis. Further studies are necessary to refine understanding of the observed survival benefits and its implications in sepsis management.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)131-137
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Surgical Research
Volume213
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1 2017

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Keywords

  • Inflammatory markers
  • Interleukin
  • Lipopolysaccharide
  • Remote ischemic conditioning
  • Sepsis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

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