Background A potential relationship has been suggested between gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). Aim To evaluate whether there is a causal relationship between GERD and different ILDs. Methods We conducted a systematic search of literature published between 1980 and 2010. After a review by two independent authors, each study was assigned an evidence-based rating according to a standard scoring system. Results We identified 319 publications and 22 of them met the entry criteria. Of those, the relationship between GERD and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) was investigated in 14 articles, pulmonary involvement in systemic sclerosis (SSc) in six articles and pulmonary involvement in mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) in two articles. We found the prevalence of GERD and/or oesophageal dysmotility to be higher in patients with different types of ILD as compared with those without ILD [Evidence B]. Among patients with IPF, 67-76% demonstrated abnormal oesophageal acid exposure off PPI treatment. No relationship was demonstrated between severity of GERD and severity of IPF [Evidence B]. Data are scant on outcomes of antireflux treatment in patients with IPF. There is a correlation between the severity of ILD and the degree of oesophageal motor impairment in patients with SSc and MCTD [Evidence B]. Conclusions Based on the currently available data, a causal relationship between GERD and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis cannot be established. There is scant evidence about antireflux therapy in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients. There may be an association between lung and oesophageal involvement in systemic sclerosis and mixed connective tissue disease, but a causal relationship cannot be established.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmacology (medical)