TEM based analysis of III-Sb VECSELs on GaAs substrates for improved laser performance

P. Ahirwar, D. Shima, T. J. Rotter, S. P R Clark, S. J. Addamane, C. P. Hains, L. R. Dawson, G. Balakrishnan, R. Bedford, Y. Y. Lai, A. Laurain, Jorg Hader, Jerome V Moloney

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The antimonide based vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers (VECSELs) operating in the 1.8 to 2.8 μm wavelength range are typically based on InGaAsSb/AlGaAsSb quantum wells on AlAsSb/GaSb distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) grown lattice-matched on GaSb substrates. The ability to grow such antimonide VECSEL structures on GaAs substrates can take advantage of the superior AlAs based etch-stop layers and mature DBR technology based on GaAs substrates. The growth of such III-Sb VECSELs on GaAs substrates is non-trivial due to the 7.78% lattice mismatch between the antimonide based active region and the GaAs/AlGaAs DBR. The challenge is therefore to reduce the threading dislocation density in the active region without a very thick metamorphic buffer and this is achieved by inducing 90° interfacial mist dislocation arrays between the GaSb and GaAs layers. In this presentation we make use of cross section transmission electron microscopy to analyze a variety of approaches to designing and growing III-Sb VECSELs on GaAs substrates to achieve a low threading dislocation density. We shall demonstrate the failure mechanisms in such growths and we analyze the extent to which the threading dislocations are able to permeate a thick active region. Finally, we present growth strategies and supporting results showing low-defect density III-Sb VECSEL active regions on GaAs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
Volume8606
DOIs
StatePublished - 2013
EventVertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VECSELs) III - San Francisco, CA, United States
Duration: Feb 3 2013Feb 5 2013

Other

OtherVertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VECSELs) III
CountryUnited States
CitySan Francisco, CA
Period2/3/132/5/13

Fingerprint

External Cavity
Surface emitting lasers
Gallium Arsenide
surface emitting lasers
Distributed Bragg reflectors
Vertical
Substrate
Laser
Transmission electron microscopy
Bragg reflectors
transmission electron microscopy
cavities
Lasers
Dislocation
Substrates
Reflector
lasers
mist
Lattice mismatch
Defect density

Keywords

  • Mismatched epitaxy
  • Quantum well lasers
  • Semiconductor lasers
  • Surface-emitting lasers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Mathematics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics

Cite this

Ahirwar, P., Shima, D., Rotter, T. J., Clark, S. P. R., Addamane, S. J., Hains, C. P., ... Moloney, J. V. (2013). TEM based analysis of III-Sb VECSELs on GaAs substrates for improved laser performance. In Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering (Vol. 8606). [86060E] https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2005301

TEM based analysis of III-Sb VECSELs on GaAs substrates for improved laser performance. / Ahirwar, P.; Shima, D.; Rotter, T. J.; Clark, S. P R; Addamane, S. J.; Hains, C. P.; Dawson, L. R.; Balakrishnan, G.; Bedford, R.; Lai, Y. Y.; Laurain, A.; Hader, Jorg; Moloney, Jerome V.

Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering. Vol. 8606 2013. 86060E.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Ahirwar, P, Shima, D, Rotter, TJ, Clark, SPR, Addamane, SJ, Hains, CP, Dawson, LR, Balakrishnan, G, Bedford, R, Lai, YY, Laurain, A, Hader, J & Moloney, JV 2013, TEM based analysis of III-Sb VECSELs on GaAs substrates for improved laser performance. in Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering. vol. 8606, 86060E, Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VECSELs) III, San Francisco, CA, United States, 2/3/13. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2005301
Ahirwar P, Shima D, Rotter TJ, Clark SPR, Addamane SJ, Hains CP et al. TEM based analysis of III-Sb VECSELs on GaAs substrates for improved laser performance. In Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering. Vol. 8606. 2013. 86060E https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2005301
Ahirwar, P. ; Shima, D. ; Rotter, T. J. ; Clark, S. P R ; Addamane, S. J. ; Hains, C. P. ; Dawson, L. R. ; Balakrishnan, G. ; Bedford, R. ; Lai, Y. Y. ; Laurain, A. ; Hader, Jorg ; Moloney, Jerome V. / TEM based analysis of III-Sb VECSELs on GaAs substrates for improved laser performance. Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering. Vol. 8606 2013.
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abstract = "The antimonide based vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers (VECSELs) operating in the 1.8 to 2.8 μm wavelength range are typically based on InGaAsSb/AlGaAsSb quantum wells on AlAsSb/GaSb distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) grown lattice-matched on GaSb substrates. The ability to grow such antimonide VECSEL structures on GaAs substrates can take advantage of the superior AlAs based etch-stop layers and mature DBR technology based on GaAs substrates. The growth of such III-Sb VECSELs on GaAs substrates is non-trivial due to the 7.78{\%} lattice mismatch between the antimonide based active region and the GaAs/AlGaAs DBR. The challenge is therefore to reduce the threading dislocation density in the active region without a very thick metamorphic buffer and this is achieved by inducing 90° interfacial mist dislocation arrays between the GaSb and GaAs layers. In this presentation we make use of cross section transmission electron microscopy to analyze a variety of approaches to designing and growing III-Sb VECSELs on GaAs substrates to achieve a low threading dislocation density. We shall demonstrate the failure mechanisms in such growths and we analyze the extent to which the threading dislocations are able to permeate a thick active region. Finally, we present growth strategies and supporting results showing low-defect density III-Sb VECSEL active regions on GaAs.",
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AU - Clark, S. P R

AU - Addamane, S. J.

AU - Hains, C. P.

AU - Dawson, L. R.

AU - Balakrishnan, G.

AU - Bedford, R.

AU - Lai, Y. Y.

AU - Laurain, A.

AU - Hader, Jorg

AU - Moloney, Jerome V

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N2 - The antimonide based vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers (VECSELs) operating in the 1.8 to 2.8 μm wavelength range are typically based on InGaAsSb/AlGaAsSb quantum wells on AlAsSb/GaSb distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) grown lattice-matched on GaSb substrates. The ability to grow such antimonide VECSEL structures on GaAs substrates can take advantage of the superior AlAs based etch-stop layers and mature DBR technology based on GaAs substrates. The growth of such III-Sb VECSELs on GaAs substrates is non-trivial due to the 7.78% lattice mismatch between the antimonide based active region and the GaAs/AlGaAs DBR. The challenge is therefore to reduce the threading dislocation density in the active region without a very thick metamorphic buffer and this is achieved by inducing 90° interfacial mist dislocation arrays between the GaSb and GaAs layers. In this presentation we make use of cross section transmission electron microscopy to analyze a variety of approaches to designing and growing III-Sb VECSELs on GaAs substrates to achieve a low threading dislocation density. We shall demonstrate the failure mechanisms in such growths and we analyze the extent to which the threading dislocations are able to permeate a thick active region. Finally, we present growth strategies and supporting results showing low-defect density III-Sb VECSEL active regions on GaAs.

AB - The antimonide based vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers (VECSELs) operating in the 1.8 to 2.8 μm wavelength range are typically based on InGaAsSb/AlGaAsSb quantum wells on AlAsSb/GaSb distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) grown lattice-matched on GaSb substrates. The ability to grow such antimonide VECSEL structures on GaAs substrates can take advantage of the superior AlAs based etch-stop layers and mature DBR technology based on GaAs substrates. The growth of such III-Sb VECSELs on GaAs substrates is non-trivial due to the 7.78% lattice mismatch between the antimonide based active region and the GaAs/AlGaAs DBR. The challenge is therefore to reduce the threading dislocation density in the active region without a very thick metamorphic buffer and this is achieved by inducing 90° interfacial mist dislocation arrays between the GaSb and GaAs layers. In this presentation we make use of cross section transmission electron microscopy to analyze a variety of approaches to designing and growing III-Sb VECSELs on GaAs substrates to achieve a low threading dislocation density. We shall demonstrate the failure mechanisms in such growths and we analyze the extent to which the threading dislocations are able to permeate a thick active region. Finally, we present growth strategies and supporting results showing low-defect density III-Sb VECSEL active regions on GaAs.

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